11Department of Animal and Poultry Nutrition, Faculty of Animal Science, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran.
2Department of Animal and Poultry Nutrition, Faculty of Animal Science, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran.
3Department of Animal and Poultry Physiology, Faculty of Animal Science, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran.
4Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Golestan University, Gorgan, Iran.
5Department of Animal Science, College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.
The antimicrobial effectiveness of different extracts of Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) plant including methanolic, ethylic acetate, chloroformic, and aqueous extracts was evaluated by Disk Diffusion method. The ethylic acetate extract showed higher antibacterial activity against E. coli compared with others. Then, effects of different levels of ethylic acetate extract on growth performance and blood parameters of broilers subjected to high ambient temperature was investigated. The treatments were; a control diet, 3 levels of the Chicory ethylic acetate extract (150, 250, and 350 mg/kg feed) and one level of probiotic with 4 replicates of 20 broiler chicks in each. The temperature was increased to 35°C with 50% relative humidity for 5 h daily, starting from 11 d until 42 d of the experimental period. Results indicated that inclusion Chicory extract at 350 mg/kg and probiotic increased body weight gain and improved feed conversion ratio during 11-24 d and 0-42 d (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in feed intake of broilers treated with Chicory extract and probiotic compared with control. The serum concentrations of triglyceride and very low-density lipoprotein significantly decreased in birds received Chicory extract at the levels of 250 and 350 mg/kg feed compared with the other treatments (P < 0.05). No significant difference was observed between treated groups and control for serum high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein concentrations. It seems that dietary supplementation of Chicory ethylic acetate extract at levels higher than 250 mg/kg feed has growth promoting effect which can result in improving growth performance and decreasing blood lipids of broilers exposed to heat stress condition.
Akbarian A, Golian A, Sheikh Ahmadi A & Moravej H. 2011. Effects of ginger root (Zingiber officinale) on egg yolk cholesterol, antioxidant status and performance of laying hens. Journal of Applied Animal Research, 39: 19–21. [Link]
Anderson DB, McCracken VJ, Aminov RI, Simpson JM, Mackie RI, Verstegen MW A & Gaskins H R. 2000. Gut microbiology and growth-promoting antibiotics in swine. Nutrition Abstracts and Reviews Series B, 70: 101-108. [Link]
Avigen. 2009. Ross 308 broiler nutrition specifications. [Link]
Awad WA, Ghareeb K & Böhm J. 2011. Evaluation of the chicory inulin efficacy on ameliorating the intestinal morphology and modulating the intestinal electrophysiological properties in broiler chickens. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, 95: 65-72. [Link]
Behboud J, Ali R & Elmira H. 2011. Comparative effect of Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) and Nigella sativa extract with an antibiotic on different parameters of broiler chickens. Journal of Applied Environmental and Biological Sciences, 1: 525-528. [Link]
Biggs P, Parsons CM & Fahey GC. 2007. The effects of several oligosaccharides on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and cecal microbial populations in young chicks. Poultry Science, 86: 2327-2336. [Link]
Blottiere HM, Champ M, Hoebler C, Michel C & Cherbut C. 1999. Production and digestive effects of short chain fatty acids. Sciences des Aliments, 19: 269–290. [Link]
Brenes A & Roura E. 2010. Essential oils in poultry nutrition: Main effects and modes of action. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 158: 1–14. [Link]
Ceksteryte V, Kazlauskas S & Racys J. 2006. Composition of flavonoids in Lithuanian honey and beebread. Biologija, 2: 28-33.[Link]
Chow J. 2002. Probiotics & prebiotics: A brief overview. Journal of Renal Nutrition, 12: 76-86. [Link]
Cooper MA & Washburn KW. 1998. The relationships of body temperature to weight gain, feed consumption, and feed utilization in broilers under heat stress. Poultry Science, 77: 237–242. [Link]
Deans SG & Waterman PG. 1993. Biological activity of volatile oils. In: Hay RKM & Waterman PG. (Eds). Volatile Oil Crops, their Biology, Biochemistry and Production. Longman Scientific and Technical, Essex. Pages, 97-111. [Link]
Dendougui H, Jay M, Benayache F & Benayache S. 2006. Flavonoids from Anvillea radiata coss. and Dur. (Asteraceae). Biochemical systematics and Ecology, 34: 718-720. [Link]
Doumas BT, Bayse DD, Carter RJ, Peters T & Schaffer R. 1981. A candidate reference method for determination of total protein in serum. I. Development and validation. Clinical Chemistry, 27: 1642-1650. [Link]
Elrayeh AS & Yildiz G. 2012. Effects of inulin and β-glucan supplementation in broiler diets on growth performance, serum cholesterol, intestinal length & immune system. Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, 36: 388-394. [Link]
Flamini G, Antognoli E & Morelli I. 2001. Two flavonoids and other compounds from the aerial parts of Centaurea bracteata from Italy. Phytochemistry, 57: 559-564. [Link]
Hinton Jr A, Buhr RJ & Ingram KD. 2000. Reduction of Salmonella in the crop of broiler chickens subjected to feed withdrawal. Poultry Science, 79: 1566-1570. [Link]
Khajuria A, Thusu N & Zutshi U. 2002. Piperine modulates permeability characteristics of intestine by inducing alterations in membrane dynamics: influence on brush border membrane fluidity, ultrastructure and enzyme kinetics. Phytomedicine, 9: 224-231. [Link]
Lin SY, Hung ATY & Lu JJ. 2011. Effects of supplement with different level of Bacillus coagulans as probiotic on growth performance and intestinal microflora populations of broiler chickens. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 10: 111-114. [Link]
Liu HY, Iversson E, Jönsson L, Holm L, Lundh L & Lindberg JE. 2011. Growth performance, digestibility and gut development of broiler chickens on diets with inclusion of Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.). Poultry Science, 90: 815-823. [Link]
Mehmood N, Zubaır M, Rızwan K, Rasool N, Shahid M & Ahmad VU. 2012. Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and phytochemical analysis of Cichorium intybus seeds extract and various organic fractions. Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 11: 1145–1151. [Link]
Nandagopal S & Ranjitha Kumari BD. 2007. Phytochemical and antibacterial studies of Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) - a multipurpose medicinal plant. Advances in Biological Research, 1: 17-21. [Link]
Neri BP & Frings CS. 1973. Improved method for determination of triglycerides in serum. Clinical Chemistry, 19: 1201-1202. [Link]
Park SO & Park BS. 2012. Effect of feeding inulin oligosaccharides on cecum bacteria, egg quality and egg production in laying hens. African Journal of Biotechnology, 11: 9516-9521. [Link]
Patterson JA & Burkholder KM. 2003. Application of prebiotics and probiotics in poultry production. Poultry Science, 82: 627–631. [Link]
Petrovic J, Stanojkovic A, Comic LJ & Curcic S. 2004. Antibacterial activity of Cichorium intybus. Fitoterapia, 75: 737-739. [Link]
Saeed M, Baloch AR, Wang M, Soomro RN, Baloch AM, Bux BA, Arian MA, Faraz SS & Zakriya HM. 2015. Use of Cichorium intybus leaf extract as growth promoter, hepatoprotectant and Immune modulent in broilers. Journal of Animal Production Advances, 5: 585-591. [Link]
Safamehr A, Fallah F & Nobakht A. 2013. Growth performance and biochemical parameters of broiler chickens on diets consist of chicory (Cichorium intybus) and nettle (Urtica dioica) with or without multi-enzyme. Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science, 3: 131-137. [Link]
SAS Institute. 2003. SAS User Guide. Version 9.1. SAS Institute, Cary, NC. [Link]
Shapiro S & Guggenheim B. 1995. The action of thymol on oral bacteria. Oral Microbiology and Immunology, 10: 241-246. [Link]
Saxena R, Sulakhiya KB & Rathore M. 2014. Cichorium intybus: A review of pharmacological profile. International Journal of Current Pharmaceutical Research, 6: 11-15. [Link]
Stiles JC, Sparks W & Ronzio RA. 1995. The inhibition of Candida albicans by oregano. Journal of Applied Nutrition, 47: 96-102.
Van Leeuwen P, Verdonk JMAJ, Wagenaars C MF & Kwakernaak C. 2005. Effects of fructooligosaccharide inclusion in diets on performance before and after inoculations with Eimeria acervulina and Clostridium perfringens in broilers. Animal Sciences Group Wagingen UR, Lelystad, Netherlands, Project 220.13180: 04.
Velasco S, Ortiz LT, Alzueta C, Rebole A, Trevino J & Rodriguez ML. 2010. Effect of inulin supplementation and dietary fat source on performance, blood serum metabolites, liver lipids, abdominal fat deposition, and tissue fatty acid composition in broiler chickens. Poultry Science, 89: 1651-1662. [Link]
Viveros A, Chamorro S, Pizarro M, Arija I, Centeno C & Brenes A. 2011. Effects of dietary polyphenol-rich grape products on intestinal microflora and gut morphology in broiler chicks. Poultry Science, 90: 566–578. [Link]
Warnick GR, Knopp RH, Fitzpatrick V & Branson L. 1990. Estimating low-density lipoprotein, cholesterol by the Fried Wald equation is adequate for classifying patients on the basis of nationally recommended cutpoints. Clinical Chemistry, 36: 15-19. [Link]
Williams CM. 1999. Effects of inulin on lipid parameters in humans. Journal of Nutrition, 129: 1471-1473. [Link]
Wybenga, DR, Pileggi VJ, Dirstine PH & Giorgio JD. 1970. Direct manual determination of serum total cholesterol with a single stable reagent. Clinical Chemistry, 16: 980-984. [Link]
Zyl ZV. 2010. Adding inulin to feed, obtained from chicory, improves villi properties in the intestines of broilers. Poultry Magazine, 28: 35-37. [Link]