Response of Broiler Chickens to Triticale-Based Diets Supplemented with Microbial Enzymes (1. Growth and Intestinal Function)

Document Type: Original Paper

Authors

1 School of Environmental and Rural Science, University of New England, Armidale, Australia

2 AB Vista, 3 Woodstock Court, Blenheim Road, Marlborough Business Park, Marlborough, UK

Abstract

A total of 384 day-old male Ross 308 broiler chicks were allocated to 8 dietary treatments to examine the influence of supplementation with xylanase and phytase, individually or in combination, in diets based on two new cultivars of triticale (Bogong and Canobolas). The inclusion of phytase alone in either Bogong or Canobolas diets increased (P < 0.01) feed intake and body weight; however, the effect of grain was not significant. The ileal digestibility of crude protein, gross energy, starch, calcium, and phosphorus was increased by inclusion of phytase and xylanase (P < 0.05). The interaction between xylanase and phytase positively influenced (P < 0.01) the digestibility of crude protein, gross energy, calcium, and phosphorus. Ileal viscosity was decreased (P < 0.05) by the inclusion of xylanase and phytase individually or in combination. The inclusion of phytase and xylanase increased (P < 0.001) the phytate-P degradation. Birds on Bogong-based diet had a higher (P < 0.05) degradation of phytate than those on the Canobolas-based diet. The weight of various visceral organs on day 7 was not affected by the inclusion of enzymes, nevertheless the weight of proventriculus plus gizzard was higher (P < 0.01) for chickens offered Canobolas-based than chicks on the Bogong-based diets. On day 21, the liver weight was reduced (P < 0.001) by the inclusion of phytase. An interaction (P < 0.01) between grain and phytase inclusion led to an increased weight of proventriculus plus gizzard on the Bogong diets with phytase. The inclusion of xylanase increased (P < 0.01) maltase activity at the jejunum on day 7, while it decreased the pancreatic protein content on day 21. The activity of chymotrypsin amidase was reduced (P < 0.01) by the inclusion of phytase. These results show that supplementation of phytase and xylanase to triticale-based diets can improve broiler performance by increasing the activities of some digestive enzymes and nutrient utilization.

Keywords


Annison G & Choct M. 1991. Anti-nutritive activities of cereal non-starch polysaccharides in broiler diets and strategies minimizing their effects. World's Poultry Science Journal, 47: 232-242. DOI: 10.1079/WPS19910019

Aviagen. 2007. ROSS 308 BROILER: Nutrition Spesification. Newbridge, Midlothian EH28 8SZ, Scotland, UK.

Bedford MR. 1995. Mechanism of action and potential environmental benefits from the use of feed enzymes. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 53: 145-155. DOI: 10.1016/0377-8401(95)02018-U

Bedford MR. 1996. The effect of enzymes on digestion. Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 5: 370-378. DOI: 10.1093/japr/5.4.370

 Bradford MM. 1976. A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Analytical Biochemistry, 72: 248-254. DOI: 10.1016/0003-2697(76)90527-3

Çiftci I, Yenice E & Eleroglu H. 2003. Use of triticale alone and in combination with wheat or maize: effects of diet type and enzyme supplementation on hen performance, egg quality, organ weights, intestinal viscosity and digestive system characteristics. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 105: 149-161. DOI: 10.1016/S0377-8401(03)00010-5

Cowieson AJ & Ravindran V. 2007. Effect of phytic acid and microbial phytase on the flow and amino acid composition of endogenous
protein at the terminal ileum of growing broiler chickens. British Journal of Nutrition, 98: 745-752. DOI: 10.1017/S0007114507750894

Engberg RM, Hedemann MS, Steenfeldt S & Jensen BB. 2004. Influence of whole wheat and xylanase on broiler performance and microbial composition and activity in the digestive tract. Poultry Science, 83: 925-938.DOI: 10.1080/0007166022000004480

Englyst HN &Hudson G J. 1993. Dietary fiber and starch: Classification and measurement. In: CRC Hanbook of Dietary Fiber and Human Nutrition (2nd ed.), Ed. Spiller, G., Pages. 53-71. CRC Press Boca Raton, Florida, US.

Elangovan AV, Bhuiyan M, Jessop R & Iji, PA. 2011. The potential of high-yielding triticale varieties in the diet of broiler chickens. Asian Journal of Poultry Science, 5: 68-76. DOI:10.3923/ajpsaj.2011.68.76

Fayez EY, Nedal HO & Mousa A. 1996. Nutritive value and feed efficiency of broiler diets containing different levels of triticale. In: Triticale: Today and Tomorrow, Eds. Guedes-Pinto H, Darvey N & Carnide VP. Vol. 5, Pages, 819-826. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht/Boston/London.

Forstner GG, Sabesin SM & Isselbacher KJ. 1968. Rat intestinal microvillus membranes. Purification and biochemical characterization. Biochemical Journal, 106: 381-390. DOI:10.1042/bj1060381

Haug W & Lantzsch HJ. 1983. Sensitive method for the rapid determination of phytate in cereals and cereal products. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 34: 1423-1426. DOI:10.1002/jsfa.2740341217

Holdsworth ES. 1970. The effect of vitamin D on enzyme activities in the mucosal cells of the chick small intestine. Journal  of  Membrane Biology, 3: 43-53. DOI:10.1007/BF01868005

Iji PA, Saki A & Tivey DR. 2001. Body and intestinal growth of broiler chicks on a commercial starter diet. 2. Development and characteristics of intestinal enzymes. British Poultry Science, 42: 514-522. DOI: 10.1080/00071660120073142

Jondreville C, Genthon C, Bouguennec A, Carre B & Nys Y. 2007. Characterisation of European varieties of triticale with special emphasis on the ability of plant phytase to improve phytate phosphorus availability to chickens. British Poultry Science, 48: 678-689. DOI: 10.1080/00071660701691292

Levic J, Djuragic O & Sredanovic S.  2006. Phytase as a factor of improving broilers growth performance and environmental protection. Archiva Zootechnica, 9: 95-100.

Mahagna M, Nir I, Larbier M & Nitsan Z. 1995. Effect of age and exogenous amylase and protease on development of the digestive tract, pancreatic enzyme activities and digestibility of nutrients in young meat-type chicks. Reproduction Nutrition Development, 35: 201-212. DOI: 10.1016/0926-5287(96)80192-4

McCleary BV, Gibson TS, Solah V & Mugford DC. 1994. Total starch measurement in cereal products: Interlaboratory evaluation of a rapid enzymic test procedure. Cereal Chemistry, 71: 501-505.

McPherson GA. 1985. Lowry Program: Elsevier-BIOSOFT. 68 Hills Rd, Cambridge, CB2, 1LA, UK.

Minitab. 2010. Minitab 16 Statistical Software. Minitab Inc. State College. PA. USA.

Nitsan Z, Dror Y, Nir I & Shapira N. 1974. The effects of force-feeding on enzymes of the liver, kidney, pancreas and digestive tract of chicks. British Jorunal of Nutrition, 32: 241-247. DOI: 10.1079/BJN19740077

Oettler G. 2005. The fortune of a botanical curiosity – Triticale: past, present and future. Journal of Agricultural Science, 143: 329-346. DOI: 10.1017/S0021859605005290

Olukosi OA, Cowieson AJ & Adeola O. 2008. Energy utilization and growth performance of broilers receiving diets supplemented with enzymes containing carbohydrase or phytase activity individually or in combination. British Journal of Nutrition, 99: 682-690. DOI: 10.1017/S0007114507815807

Osek M,  Milczarek A, Janocha A & Swinarska R. 2010. Effect of triticale as a partial or complete wheat and maize substitute in broiler chicken diets on growth performance, slaughter value and meat quality. Annals of Animal Science, 10: 275-283.

Pettersson D & Åman P. 1988. Effects of enzyme supplementation of diets based on wheat, rye or triticale on their productive value for broiler chickens. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 20: 313-324. DOI: 10.1016/0377-8401(88)90005-3

Pinheiro DF, Cruz VC, Sartori JR and Vicentini Paulino ML. 2004. Effect of early feed restriction and enzyme supplementation on
digestive enzyme activities in broilers. Poultry Science, 83: 1544-1550. DOI:10.1093/ps/83.9.1544

Pourreza J, Samie AH & Rowghani E. 2007. Effect of supplemental enzyme on nutrient digestibility and performance of broiler chicks fed on diets containing triticale. International Journal of Poultry Science, 6: 115-117.

Ravindran V, Morel, PCH, Partridge GG, Hruby M & Sands JS. 2006. Influence of an escherichia coli-derived phytase on nutrient utilization in broiler starters fed diets containing varying concentrations of phytic acid. Poultry Science, 85: 82-89. DOI: 10.1093/ps/85.1.82

Rundgren M. 1988. Evaluation of triticale given to pigs, poultry and rats. Animal Feed Science & Technology, 19: 359-375.DOI: 10.1016/0377-8401(88)90026-0

Sebastian S, Touchburn SP, Chavez ER & Laguë PC. 1997. Apparent digestibility of protein and amino acids in broiler chickens fed a corn-soybean diet supplemented with microbial phytase. Poultry Science, 76: 1760-1769. DOI:10.1093/ps/76.12.1760

Selle PH, Ravindran V & Partridge GG. 2009. Beneficial effects of xylanase and/or phytase inclusions on ileal amino acid digestibility,  energy  utilization,  mineral  retention  and growth performance in wheat-based broiler diets. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 153: 303-313. DOI:10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2009.06.011

Serviere-Zaragoza E, del Toro MAN & García-Carreño FL. 1997. Protein-hydrolyzing enzymes in the digestive systems of the adult Mexican blue abalone, Haliotis fulgens (Gastropoda). Aquaculture, 157: 325-336. DOI: 10.1016/S0044-8486(97)00169-5

Shimada A, Cline TR & Rogler JC. 1974. Nutritive value of triticale for the nonruminant. Journal of  Animal Science, 38: 935-940. DOI:10.2527/jas1974.385935x

Shirazi-Beechey SP, Smith MW, Wang Y &  James PS. 1991. Postnatal development of lamb intestinal digestive enzymes is not regulated by diet. Journal of  Physiology, 437: 691–698. DOI: 10.1113/jphysiol.1991.sp018619

Short FJ, Gorton P, Wiseman J & Boorman KN. 1996. Determination of titanium dioxide added as an inert marker in chicken digestibility studies. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 59: 215-221. DOI: 10.1016/0377-8401(95)00916-7

Theander O & Westerlund E. 1993. Determination of individual component of dietary fibre. In: CRC Handbook of Dietary Fiber and Human Nutrition (2nd ed.), Ed. Spiller, G., Pages, 77-98. CRC Press Boca Raton, Florida, US.

Thompson LU & Yoon JH. 1984. Starch digestibility as affected by polyphenols and phytic acid. Journal of Food Science, 49: 1228-1229. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2621.1984.tb10443.x

Truong HH, Bold RM, Liu SY & Selle PH. 2015. Standard phytase inclusion in maize-based broiler diets enhances digestibility coefficients of starch, amino acids and sodium in four small intestinal segments and digestive dynamics of starch and protein. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 209: 240-248. DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2015.08.012

Vieira SL, Penz AM Jr, Kessler AM & Catellan EV Jr. 1995. A nutritional evaluation of triticale in broiler diets. Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 4: 352-355. DOI: 10.1093/japr/4.4.352

Wang Z, Qiao S, Lu W & Li D. 2005. Effects of enzyme supplementation on performance, nutrient digestibility, gastrointestinal morphology, and volatile fatty acid profiles in the hindgut of broilers fed wheat-based diets. Poultry Science, 84: 875-881.DOI: 10.1093/ps/84.6.875

Widodo AE, Nolan JV & Iji PA. 2015. The nutritional value of new varieties of high-yielding triticale: Feeding value of triticale for broiler chickens.  South African Journal of Animal Science, 45: 74-81.DOI: 10.4314/sajas.v45i1.9

Wu YB, Ravindran V, Thomas DG, Birtles MJ & Hendriks WH. 2004. Influence of phytase and xylanase, individually or in combination, on performance, apparent metabolisable energy, digestive tract measurements and gut morphology in broilers fed wheat-based diets containing adequate level of phosphorus. British Poultry Science, 45: 76-84. DOI: 10.1080/00071660410001668897

Zarghi H & Golian A. 2009. Effect of triticale replacement and enzyme supplementation on performance and blood chemistry of broiler chickens. Journal of  Animal and Veterinary Advances, 8:1316-1321.

Zarghi H, Golian A, Kermanshahi H, Raji AR & Heravi AR. 2010. The effect of triticale and enzyme in finisher diet on performance, gut morphology and blood chemistry of broiler chickens. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 9: 2305-2314.

ZarghiH, Golian A &Kermanshahi H. 2016. The effect of triticale and enzyme cocktail (xylanase & beta-glucanase) replacement in grower diet on performance, digestive organ relative weight, gut viscosity and gut morphology of broiler chickens. Iranian Journal of Animal Science Research, 8: 298-312. (In Persian with English abstract)