Effects of Coenzyme Q10 and Vitamin C on Growth Performance and Blood Components in Broiler Chickens under Heat Stress

Authors

Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Jiroft, Jiroft, Iran

Abstract

This experiment was carried out to study the effects of Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) and vitamin C (VC) on growth performance and blood biochemistry in broiler chickens under heat stress conditions. One of three levels of CoQ10 (0, 20, and 40 mg/kg of diet) and one of two levels of VC (0 and 250 mg/kg of diet) were supplemented to diets of chicks (from 1-42 d of age) in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement. Each dietary treatment had four replicate pens (10 chicks/pen). In order to create chronic heat stress, the house temperature was set at an ambient temperature of 35±2°C for 8 hrs daily (09:00 to 17:00) between 25-42 d of age. Feed intake, body weight gain (BWG), and feed to gain ratio (F:G) were recorded at d 10, 25 and 42. At the end of experiment, two chicks/pen were randomly selected to assess blood components. CoQ10 supplementation improved BWG and F:G during 11-25 days, 26-42 days, and the whole period of the experiment (P < 0.05), while VC supplementation improved BWG and F:G only during 11-25 d of age. Blood glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations were reduced (P < 0.05) by addition of CoQ10 to the diet. Both Supplementation of CoQ10 and VC together lowered heterophil (H) count but increased lymphocyte (L) count, thereby reducing H/L ratio (P < 0.05). Serum concentrations of corticosterone and T4 were positively affected by dietary supplementation of CoQ10 (P < 0.05), but no differences were obtained with addition of VC to the diet. In conclusion, our observations demonstrated that dietary supplementation of 40 mg/kg CoQ10 or 250 mg/kg VC improves the growth performance of broiler chickens under the heat stress.

Keywords


Alba M, Esmaeilipour O & Mirmahmoudi R. 2015. Effects of Withania coagulans fruit powder and vitamin C on growth performance and some blood components in heat stressed broiler chickens. Livestock Science, 173: 64-68. DOI:  10.1016/j.livsci.2015.01.001

Aviagen J. 2007. Parent stock management manual: ROSS 308. Aviagen Ltd., Newbridge, UK.

Balnave D. 2004. Challenges of accurately defining the nutrient requirements of heat-stressed poultry. Poultry Science, 83: 5-14. DOI: 10.1093/ps/83.1.5

Behboudi H, Esmaeilipour O, Mirmahmoudi R & Mazhari M. 2016. The influence of drinking water containing lemon juice and thyme supplemented diet on performance and some blood parameters in broilers under heat stress. Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science, 6: 169-174.

Borges SA. 1997. Suplementação de cloreto de potássio e bicarbonato de sódio para frangos de corte durante o verão. Dissertacao de mestrado. UNESP, Jaboticabal, Brazil.

Borges S,  Fischer da Silva AV, Ariki J, Hooge DM & Cummings KR. 2003. Dietary electrolyte balance for broiler chickens  exposed to thermoneutral or heat-stress environments. Poultry Science, 82: 428-435. DOI: 10.1093/ps/82.3.428

Borges SA, Fischer da Silva AV, Majorka A, Hooge DM & Cummings KR. 2004. Physiological responses of broiler chickens to heat stress and dietary electrolyte balance (sodium plus potassium minus chloride, milliequivalents per kilogram). Poultry Science, 83: 1551-1558. DOI: 10.1093/ps/83.9.1551

Cīrule D, Krama T, Vrublevska J, Rantala MJ & Krams I. 2012. A rapid effect of handling on counts of white blood cells in a wintering passerine bird: a more practical measure of stress? Journal of Ornithology, 153: 161-166. DOI: 10.1007/s10336-011-0719-9

Etches R, John JM & Gibbins AMV. 1995. Behavioural, physiological, neuroendocrine and molecular responses to heat stress. Pages 31-65 in Poultry Production in Hot Climates. N. J. Daghir, ed. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.

Feher J, Nemeth E, Nagy V, Lengyel G & Feher J. 2007. The preventive role of coenzyme Q10 and other antioxidants in injuries caused by oxidative stress. Archives of Medical Science, 3: 305-314.

Geraert PA, Padilha JCF & Guillaumin S. 1996. Metabolic and endocrine changes induced by chronic heat exposure in broiler chickens: growth performance, body composition and energy retention. British Journal of Nutrition, 75: 195-204. DOI: 10.1017/BJN19960124

Gursu MF, Onderci M, Gulcu F & Sahin K. 2004. Effects of vitamin C and folic acid supplementation on serum paraoxonase activity and metabolites induced by heat stress in vivo. Nutrition Research, 24: 157-164. DOI: 10.1016/j.nutres.2003.11.008

Iqbal A, Decuypere E, Abd El Azim A & Kühn ER. 1990. Pre- and post-hatch high temperature exposure affects the thyroid hormones and corticosterone response to acute heat stress in growing chicken (Gallus domesticus). Journal of Thermal Biology, 15: 149-153. DOI: 10.1016/0306-4565(90)90032-D

Kamboh AA & Zhu WY. 2013. Effect of increasing levels of bioflavonoids in broiler feed on plasma anti-oxidative potential, lipid metabolites, and fatty acid composition of meat. Poultry Science, 92: 454-461. DOI: 10.3382/ps.2012-02584

Kırkpınar F, Ünlü HB & Özdemir G. 2011. Effects of oregano and garlic essential oils on performance, carcase, organ and blood characteristics and intestinal microflora of broilers. Livestock Science, 137: 219-225. DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2010.11.010

Kutlu HR. 2001. Influences of wet feeding and supplementation with ascorbic acid on performance and carcass composition of broiler chicks exposed to a high ambient temperature. Archives of Animal nutrition, 54: 127-139. DOI: 10.1080/17450390109381972

Kutlu HR & Forbes JM. 1993. Changes in growth and blood parameters in heat-stressed broiler chicks in response to dietary ascorbic acid. Livestock Production Science, 36: 335-350. DOI: 10.1016/0301-6226(93)90050-R

Lara LJ & Rostagno MH. 2013. Impact of heat stress on poultry production. Animals, 3: 356-369. DOI: 10.3390/ani3020356

Lee KW, Everts H, Kappert HJ, Frehner M, Losa R & Beynen AC. 2003. Effects of dietary essential oil components on growth performance, digestive enzymes and lipid metabolism in female broiler chickens. British Poultry Science, 44: 450-457. DOI: 10.1080/0007166031000085508

Lin H, Jiao HC, Buyse J & Decuypere E. 2006. Strategies for preventing heat stress in poultry. World’s Poultry Science Journal, 62: 71-86. DOI: 10.1079/WPS200585

Littarru GP & Tiano L. 2005. Clinical aspects of coenzyme Q10: An update. Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care, 8: 641-646.

Mashaly MM, Hendricks 3rd GL, Kalama MA, Gehad AE, Abbas AO & Patterson PH. 2004. Effect of heat stress on production parameters and immune responses of commercial laying hens. Poultry Science, 83: 889-894. DOI: 10.1093/ps/83.6.889

Ma X, Lin Y, Zhang H, Chen W, Wang S, Ruan D & Jiang Z. 2014. Heat stress impairs the nutritional metabolism and reduces the productivity of egg-laying ducks. Animal Reproduction Science, 145: 182-190. DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2014.01.002

Modi KP, Vishwakarma SL, Goyal RK & Bhatt PA. 2006. Beneficial effects of coenzyme Q10 in streptozotocin-induced type I diabetic rats. Iranian Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 5: 61-65.

Peña JEM, Vieira SL, López J, Reis RN, Barros R, Furtado FVF & Silva PX. 2008. Ascorbic acid and citric flavonoids for broilers under heat stress: effects on performance and meat quality. Brazilian Journal of Poultry Science, 10: 125-130. DOI: 10.1590/S1516-635X2008000200008

Rafiee FMazhari MGhoreishi MEsmaeilipour O. 2016. Effect of lemon verbena powder and vitamin C on performance and immunity of heat-stressed broilers. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, 100: 807-12. DOI: 10.1111/jpn.12457

Sahin K, Sahin N & Yaralioglu S. 2002. Effects of vitamin C and vitamin E on lipid peroxidation, blood serum metabolites and mineral concentrations of laying hens reared at high ambient temperature. Biological Trace Element Research, 85: 35-45. DOI: 10.1385/BTER:85:1:35

SAS 2001. SAS procedures guide, version 8. SAS Inst. Inc., Cary, NC.

Tao X, Zhang ZY, Dong H, Zhang H & Xin H. 2006. Responses of thyroid hormones of market-size broilers to thermoneutral constant and warm cyclic temperatures. Poultry Science, 85: 1520-1528. DOI: 10.1093/ps/85.9.1520

Vleck CM, Vertalino N, Vleck D & Bucher TL. 2000. Stress, corticosterone and heterophil to lymphocyte ratios in free-living Adélie penguins. Condor, 102: 392-400. DOI: 10.1650/0010-5422(2000)102[0392:SCAHTL]2.0.CO;2

Yahava S. 1999. The effect of constant and diurnal cyclic temperatures on performance and blood system of young turkeys. Journal of Thermal Biology, 24: 71-78. DOI: 10.1016/S0306-4565(98)00042-4

Zulkifli I & Siegel PB. 1995. Is there a positive side to stress? World’s Poultry Science Journal, 51: 63-76. DOI: 10.1079/WPS19950006