1Department of Animal Production, College of Veterinary Medicine and Agriculture, Addis Ababa University, Debre Zeit, Ethiopia
2Debre Zeit Agricultural Research Center, Debre Zeit, Ethiopia
This study was conducted to examine the effects of feed restriction on production performance as well as traits relating to egg and carcass yield in Potchefstroom Koekoek dual purpose chicken bred under Ethiopian conditions. A total of 240 one-day-old dual purpose Koekoek chicks were randomly distributed into 12 experimental pens, representing 4 feeding treatments to evaluate the performance of chicks on body weight and age at onset of laying eggs (AOLE), egg quality, and carcass parameters. Treatments were control (unrestricted feed), R7-28 (restricted feed at 7, 10, 13, 16, 19, 22, 25 and 28 days of age), R35-56 (restricted feed at 35, 38, 41, 44, 47, 50, 53 and 56 days of age) and R63-84 (restricted feed at 63, 66, 69, 72, 75, 78, 81 and 84 days of age) groups. The results showed a significant difference between the control and R63-84 group's birds in both daily and total feed consumption (P < 0.05). There was a significant (P < 0.05) difference in body weight at the end of the starter period, where R63-84 group's birds had a heavier body weight and body weight gain than R7-28 and R35-56 groups' birds, but not control birds. Yolk diameter was significantly lower in R35-56 group than R7-28 and R63-84 groups (P < 0.05). Feed restriction also did not affect slaughter and dressed weight, but the eviscerated weight was significantly lower in R35-56 and R63-84 groups than control (P < 0.05). Feed restriction was associated with production costs of the treatments, and the feeding regime of R63-84 group significantly decreased the amount of feed consumed by birds (P < 0.05). Thus, feed restriction during 63 to 84 days of age (R63-84 group) can be useful because of improving the production profitability of rearing chicks without affecting the AOLE, body weight at AOLE, egg weight, and carcass parameters.
Al-Taleb S. 2007. Effect of nutrient intake restrictions by dietary dilutions with sand on broiler performance. Jordan Journal Agriculture Science, 3: 281-287. [Link]
Ballay M, Dunnington EA, Gross WB & Siegel PB. 1992. Restricted feeding and broiler performance: age initiation and length of restriction. Poultry Science, 71: 440-447. [Link]
Bruggeman V, Onagbesan O, Ragot MO, Metayer S & Cassy S. 2005. Feed allowance-genotype interaction in broiler breeder hens. Poultry Science, 84: 298-306. [Link]
DZARC (Debre Zeit Agricultural Research Center), 2003. Annual Research Report 2002/03, Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research, Debre Zeit, Ethiopia.
Ensminger ME, Oldfield JE & Herneman WW. 1990. Feeds and Feeding. Second edition. Ensiminger Publishing Company, United State, California. 1544p.
Etches RJ. 1996. Reproduction in Poultry. CAB International Ontario, Canada N1G 2W1. pp: 348. [Link]
Fontana EA. 1992. Effect of early feed restriction on growth, feed conversion, and mortality in broiler chickens.Poultry Science, 71: 1680-1739. [Link]
Hassanien HM. 2011. Productive performance of broiler chickens as affected by feed restriction systems. Asian Journal of Poultry Science, 5: 21-27. [Link]
Haugh RR. 1937. The Haugh unit for measuring egg quality. United State Egg Poultry Magazine, 43: 552-553 and 572-573. In: Hasin B.M., Ferdaus A.J.M., Islam M.A., Uddin M.J. and Islam M.S. Marigold and orange skin as egg yolk color promoting agents. International Journal of Poultry Science, 5: 979-987.
Hocking PM, Rutherford KD & Picard M. 2007. Comparison of time-based frequencies, fractal, analysis and T-Patterns for assessing behavioral changes in broiler breeders fed on two diets at two levels of feed restriction. Applied Animal Behavior Science, 104: 37-48. [Link]
Hurwitz S & Plavink I. 1989. Severe feed restriction in pullets during the early growing period: Performance and relationship among age, body weight and egg weight at the onset of production. Poultry Science, 68: 914-924. [Link]
Kari RR, Quisenberry JH & Bradley JW. 1977. Egg quality and performance as influenced by restricted feeding of commercial caged layers. Poultry Science, 56: 1914-1919. [Link]
Kekeocha CC. 1985. Introduction to poultry keeping. Pp 1-15. In: Poultry Production Hand Book, Pfizer Corporation, Nairobi.
Kim SH, Lee SJ, Jang BG, Choi CH & Ryu KS. 2004. Effects of restricted feeding to pullet on weight and composition of body, laying performance, egg quality and endocrine in brown layers. Proceedings of XXII World's Poultry Congress, June 8-13, Istanbul, Turkey, pp: 387-387.
Lee KH & Lesson S. 2001. Performance of broilers fed limited quantities of feed or nutrients during seven to fourteen days of age. Poultry Science, 80: 446–454. [Link]
Mbugua PN, Austic RE & Cunningham DL. 1985. Effect of feed restriction on growth and metabolism of replacement pullets.Poultry Science, 64: 1950-1958. [Link]
Merlet FJ, Puterflam J, Faoure P, Hocking M & Picard M. 2005. Detection and comparison of time patterns of behaviors of two broiler genotypes fed ad libitum. Behavior Science, 94: 255-271. [Link]
Novel DJ, Ng’Ambi JW, Norris D & Mbajiorgu CA. 2009. Effect of different feed restriction regimes during the starter stage on productivity and carcass characteristics of male and female Ross 308 broiler chickens. International Journal of Poultry Science, 8: 35-39. [Link]
Ohtani S & Leeson S. 2000. The effect of intermittent lighting on metabolizable energy intake and heat production of male broilers. Poultry Science, 79: 167-171. [Link]
Pinchasove Y, Nir I & Nitsan Z. 1985. Metabolic and anatomical adaptation of heavy bodied chickens to intermittent feeding. Food intake, growth rate, organ weight, and body composition. Poultry Science, 64: 2098-2109. [Link]
Puterflam J, Merlet F, Faure JM, Hocking PM & Picard M. 2006. Effects of genotype and feed restriction on the time-budgets of broiler breeders at different ages. Applied Animal Behavior Science, 98: 100-113. [Link]
Sahota AW & Bhatti BM, 2001. Effect of feed restriction during growing period on laying performance of white leghorn hens. Pakistan Journal Veterinary, 21(3): 145-147. [Link]
Sandilandsa B, Tolkampara BJ, Savoryb CJ & Kyriazakis I. 2006. Behavior and welfare of broiler breeders fed qualitative restricted diets during rearing. Are there viable alternatives to restriction? Applied Animal Behavior Science, 96: 53-67. [Link]
Sarica M, Yamak B & Yamak US. 2009. The effects of feed restrictions in rearing period on growing and laying performances of white and brown layer hybrids in different adult body weights. Asian Journal of Poultry Science, 3: 30-41.[Link]
SAS (Statistical Analysis System). 2003. SAS/STAT® 9.1. User's Guide. SAS Institute Inc. Cary, North Carolina. [Link]
Tesfaye E, Tamir B, Haile A & Dessie T. 2009. Effect of feed restriction on production and reproductive performance of Rhode Island Red Pullets. African Journal of AgriculturalResearch, 4: 642-648. [Link]
Tesfaye E, Tamir B, Haile A & Dessie T. 2011. Effect of skip-a-day feed restriction on carcass yield characteristics and economic advantage of Rhode Island Red pullets. African Journal of Agricultural Research,6: 849-855. [Link]
Upton M. 1979. Farm management in Africa: the principle of production and planning. Oxford University Press, Great Britain. pp: 282-298.
Wilson KJ & Beyer RS. 2000. Poultry Nutrition Information for the Small Flock. Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service.
Zhong C, Nakaue HS, Hu CY & Mirosh LW. 1995. Effect of full feed and early feed restriction on broiler performance, abdominal fat level, cellularity and fat metabolism in broiler chickens. Poultry Science, 74: 1636-1643. [Link]
Zubair AK & Leeson S. 1996. Compensatory growth in the broiler chicken: a review. World's Poultry Science, 52: 189-201. [Link]