Effects of Various Levels of Oxidized Oil on Performance, Egg Quality and Some Blood Metabolites in Laying Hens

Document Type: Original Paper

Authors

Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran

Abstract

The influence of dietary oxidized oil was studied on laying hen performance, egg quality and blood metabolites.  Experiment was conducted on 160 laying hens (Hy-Line W-36, 54-61 wk of age) in a completely randomized design with five treatments and four replicated cages containing eight birds per cage. Dietary treatments replaced fresh soybean oil in the control diet (3% fresh soybean oil, 15.25% crude protein, and 2858 Kcal/kg metabolizable energy) with 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% oxidized oil. Egg production and egg weight were recorded daily and feed intake, feed conversion ratio, and egg mass were calculated weekly. Egg quality traits were recorded on a biweekly basis. Hen’s body weight was measured individually at the beginning and end of the experiment. Serum metabolites were determined at the end of the experiment. There was a significant difference between diets with different oxidized oil levels in egg weight, egg mass, Egg production, and feed conversion ratio (P < 0.05). Feed intake was not affected by dietary treatments. There was no significant difference between oxidized oil levels on blood serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein and very low-density lipoprotein. Malondialdehyde of the liver was not affected by oxidized oils. The results of this study have clearly demonstrated that maximum 25% oxidized oil could be replaced by fresh oil in the diets without any adverse effect on the performance of laying hens.

Keywords


Alexander JC. 1981. Chemical and biological properties related to toxicity of heated fats. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A Current Issues, 7: 125–138. [Link]

Ammouche A, Rouaki F, Bitam A & Bellal MM. 2002. Effect of ingestion of thermally oxidized sunflower oil on the fatty acid composition and antioxidant enzymes of rat liver and brain in development. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, 46: 268–275. [Link]

Bou R, Tres A, Baucells MD & Guardiola F. 2005. Increase of geometrical and positional fatty acid isomers in dark meat from broilers fed heated oils. Poultry Science, 84: 1942–1954. [Link]

Cherian G, Wolfe F & Sim J. 1996. Dietary oils with added tocopherols: effects on egg or tissue tocopherols, fatty acids, and oxidative stability. Poultry Science, 75: 423-431. [Link]

Duncan DB. 1955. Multiple range and F-tests. Biometrics, 11: 1-42. [Link]

Eder K. 1999. The effects of dietary oxidized oil on lipid metabolism in rats. Lipids, 34: 717–725. [Link]

Esterbauer H, Schaur RF & Zollner H. 1991. Chemistry and biochemistry of 4-hydroxynonenal, malonaldehyde and related aldehydes. Free Radical Biological Medicine, 11: 81-128. [Link]

Grobas S, Mendez J, Lazaro R, de Blas C & Mateos GG. 2001. Influence of source and percentage of fat added to diet on performance and fatty acid composition of egg yolks of two strains of laying hens. Poultry Science, 80: 1171-1179. [link]

Guardiola F, Dutta PC, Codony R & Savage GP. 2002. Cholesterol and phytosterol oxidation products: analysis, occurrence, and biological effects. AOCS Press: Champaign, IL, 2002. [Link]

Haugh RR. 1937. The Haugh unit for measuring egg quality. U.S. Egg and Poultry Magazine, 43, 552 - 555 and 572.

Hy-Line International. 2003. Commercial Management Guide for Hy-Line W-36. [Link]

Koch A, Konig B, Spielmann J, Leitner A, Stangl GI & Eder K. 2007. Thermally oxidized oil increases the expression of insulin-induced genes and inhibits activation of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2 in rat liver. Journal of Nutrition, 137: 2018–2023. [Link]

Lewis-McCrea LM & Lall SP. 2006. Effects of moderately oxidized dietary lipid and the role of vitamin E on the development of skeletal abnormalities in juvenile Atlantic halibut (hippoglossus hippoglossus). Aquaculture, 262: 142–155. [Link]

Paganelli CV, Olszowka A & Ar A. 1974. The avian egg surface area, volume, and density. Condor, 319-325. [Link]

Poling CE, Warner WD, Mone PE & Rice EE. 1962. The influence of temperature, heating time and aeration upon the nutritive value of fats. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society, 39: 315-320. [Link]

SAS (Statistical Analysis System). 2008. SAS/STAT® 9.2. User's Guide. SAS Institute Inc. Cary, North Carolina. [Link]

Sanchez-Muniz FJ, Varela LS, Polonio GCM & Cuesta C. 1998. Dietary effect on growth, liver peroxides and serum and lipoprotein
lipids in rats fed a thermoxidized and polymerized sunflower oil. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 76: 364-372. [Link]

Seppanen CM & Csallany AS. 2004. Incorporation of the toxic aldehyde 4-hydroxy-2-trans-nonenal into food fried in thermally oxidized soybean oil. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society, 87: 1137–1141. [Link]

Seppanen CM & Csallany AS. 2006. The effect of intermittent and continuous heating of soybean oil at frying temperature on the formation of 4-hydroxy-2-trans-nonenal and other α-, β-unsaturated hydroxyaldehydes. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society, 83: 121–127. [Link]

Suomela JP, Ahotupa M, Sjovall O, Kurvinen JP & Kallio H. 2004. Diet and lipoprotein oxidation: Analysis of oxidized triacylglycerols in pig lipoproteins. Lipids, 39: 639–647. [Link]

Urso ML & Clarkson PM. 2003. Oxidative stress, exercise and antioxidant supplementation. Toxicology, 189: 41–54. [Link]

Warnants N, Van Oeckel MJ, & Boucque CV. 1996. Incorporation of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids in pork tissues and its implications for the quality of the end products. Meat Science, 44: 125–144. [Link]

Yannakopoulos A & Tserveni-Gousi A. 1986. Quality characteristics of quail eggs. British Poultry Science, 27: 171-176. [Link]

Yue HY, Wang J, Qi XL, Ji F, Liu MF, Wu SG, Zhang HJ & Qi GH. 2011. Effects of dietary oxidized oil on laying performance, lipid metabolism, and apolipoprotein gene expression in laying hens. Poultry Science, 90: 1728–1736. [Link]

Zalejska-Fiolka J, Wielkoszynski T, Kasperczyk S, Kasperczyk A & Birkner E. 2012. Effect of Oxidized Cooking Oil and α-lipoic acid on blood antioxidants: Enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation in rat fed a high-fat diet. Biological Trace Element Research, 145: 217-221. [Link]