Effects of Barley Cultivar and Dietary Supplemental enzyme on Performance, Egg Quality Traits, and Selected Blood Parameters of Laying Hens

Document Type: Original Paper

Authors

1 Department of Animal Science, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran

2 Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran

Abstract

The effect of supplementing two commercial multienzyme to diets included two barley cultivars (Sararood [71.99%] and Valfajr [66.39%]) on performance, egg quality, and blood parameters of laying hens was investigated in an 8-wk (65 to 73 wk of age) experiment.  The commercial multienzymes were Grindazym™ (with mainly β-glucanase and xylanase activity) and Hemicell® (with mainly β-mannanase activity). Each dietary treatment consisted of five replicates of six hens. Barley cultivar had no significant effect on the measured criteria  and there was no interaction between barley cultivar and enzyme throughout the study. Diet supplementation with enzymes reduced feed intake (P < 0.05). Hens receiving Grindazym-supplemented diets produced more eggs than those receiving diets without enzyme or supplemented with Hemicell (P < 0.05). Conversely, egg weight was higher for hens receiving the Hemicell-supplemented diets than for those fed the other diets (P < 0.05). Hens receiving the Grindazym-supplemented diet showed higher egg mass than those fed the unsupplemented diets (P < 0.05) and egg mass of hens receiving the Hemicell-supplemented diets was intermediate between these two groups. Feed conversion ratio was improved by enzyme supplementation throughout the study (P < 0.05). Serum concentration of triiodothyronine was higher in hens receiving the Grindazym-supplemented diets than that in hens receiving the diets with no enzyme or supplemented with Hemicell (P < 0.05). Overall, the nutritive value of barley could be improved by enzyme supplementation. However, the two enzyme sources had different effects on performance of laying hens probably due to different mechanisms of action.

Keywords


Al Bustany Z & Elwinger K. 1988. Whole grains, unprocessed rapeseed and beta-glucanase in diets for laying hens. Swedish Journal of Agricultural Research, 18: 31–40. [Link]

Aman P & Graham H. 1987. Analysis of total and insoluble mixed-linked (1→3),(1→4)-β-D-glucans in barley and oats. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 35: 704–709. [Link]

AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists). 1995. Official Methods of Analysis, 15th Ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC. [Link]

Azarfar A. 2013. Effect of hemicell enzyme on the performance, growth parameter, some blood factors and ileal digestibility of broiler chickens fed corn/soybean-based diets. Journal of Cell and Animal Biology, 7: 85-91. [Link]

Berg LR. 1959. Enzyme supplementation of barley diets for laying hens. Poultry Science, 38: 1132–1139. [Link]

Brenes A, Guenter W, Marquardt RR & Rotter BA. 1993. Effect of β-glucanase/pentosanase enzyme supplementation on the performance of chickens and laying hens fed wheat, barley, naked oats and rye diets. Canadian Journal of Animal Science, 73: 941–951. [Link]

Brufau J, Cos R, Perez-Vendrell A & Esteve-Garcia E. 1994. Performance of laying hens as affected by the supplementation of a barley-based diet with a crude enzyme preparation from Trichoderma viride. Canadian Journal of Animal Science, 74: 129–133. [Link]

Choct M. 2015. Feed non-starch polysaccharides for monogastric animals: classification and
function. Animal Production Science 55: 1360–1366. [Link]

Chotinsky D. 2015. The use of enzymes to improve utilization of nutrient in poultry diets. Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 21: 429–435. [Link]

Darras VM, Van der Geyten S & Kühn ER. 2000. Thyroid hormone metabolism in poultry. Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement, 4: 13–20. [Link]

Eisen EJ, Bohren BB & McKean HE. 1962. The Haugh unit as a measure of egg albumen quality. Poultry Science, 41: 1461–1468. [Link]

Englyst HN & Cummings JH. 1984. Simplified method for the measurement of total non-starch polysaccharides by gas-liquid chromatography of constituent sugars as alditol acetates. Analyst, 109: 937–942. [Link]

FASS (Federation of Animal Science Societies). 2010. Guide for the Care and Use of Agricultural Animals in Research and Teaching, 3rd Ed. Federation of Animal Science Societies, Champaign-Urbana, Illinois, IL.

Fernandes LC, Mattozo CA, Machado UF, Costa Rosa LFBP & Curi R. 1996. Insulin treatment can abolish changes in glucose and glutamine metabolism of lymphocytes and macrophages caused by the implantation of the Walker 256 tumour. Cell Biochemistry and Function, 14: 187–192. [Link]

Ferrari B, Finocchiaro F, Stanca AM & Gianinetti A. 2009. Optimization of air classification for the production of β-glucan-enriched barley flours. Journal of Cereal Science, 50: 152–158. [Link]

 

Fincher GB. 1975. Morphology and chemical composition of barley endosperm cell walls. Journal of the Institute of Brewing, 81: 116–122. [Link]

Fuente JM, Perez de Ayala P, Flores A & Villamide MJ. 1998. Effect of storage time and dietary enzyme on the metabolizable energy and digesta viscosity of barley-based diets for poultry. Poultry Science, 77: 90-97. [Link]

Gao F, Jiang Y, Zhou GH & Han ZK. 2008. The effects of xylanase supplementation on performance, characteristics of the gastrointestinal tract, blood parameters and gut microflora in broilers fed on wheat-based diets. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 142: 173–184. [Link]

García M, Lázaro R, Latorre MA, Gracia MI & Mateos GG. 2008. Influence of enzyme supplementation and heat processing of barley on digestive traits and productive performance of broilers. Poultry Science, 87: 940–948. [Link]

Grobas S, Méndez J, Lázaro R, de Blas C & Mateos GG. 2001. Influence of source and percentage of fat added to diet on performance and fatty acid composition of egg yolks of two strains of laying hens. Poultry Science, 80: 1171–1179. [Link]

Hajati H. 2010. Effects of enzyme supplementation on performance, carcass characteristics, carcass composition and some blood parameters of broiler chicken. American Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, 5: 221–227. [Link]

Henry RJ. 1987. Pentosan and (1→ 3),(1→ 4)-β-Glucan concentrations in endosperm and whole grain of wheat, barley, oats and rye. Journal of Cereal Science, 6: 253–258. [Link]

Holder DP & Bradford MV. 1979. Relationship of specific gravity of chicken eggs to number of cracked eggs and percent shell. Poultry Science, 58: 250–251. [Link]

Hrmova M, Burton R, Biely P, Lahnstein J & Fincher G. 2006. Hydrolysis of (1, 4)-beta-D-mannans in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is mediated by the concerted action of (1, 4)-beta-D-mannan endohydrolase and beta-D-mannosidase. Biochemical Journal, 399: 77–90. [Link]

Hsiao HY, Anderson DM & Dale NM. 2006. Levels of β-mannan in soybean meal. Poultry Science, 85: 1430–1432. [Link]

Jackson ME, Fodge DW & Hsiao HY. 1999. Effects of beta-mannanase in corn-soybean meal diets on laying hen performance. Poultry Science, 78: 1737–1741. [Link]

Jacob JP & Pescatore AJ. 2012. Using barley in poultry diets—A review. Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 21: 915–940. [Link]

Janmohammadi H, Taghizadeh A & Pirany N. 2009. Chemical composition and metabolizable energy content of some barley varieties of East Azarbyjan using adult leghorn roosters. Animal Science Researches, 19: 105-115. [Link]

Janssen WMMA, Terpstra K, Beeking FFE & Bisalsky AJN. 1979. Feeding Values for Poultry, 2nd Ed. Spelderholt Center for Poultry Research and Information Services, Beekbergen, the Netherlands. [Link]

Jeroch H & Dänicke S. 1995. Barley in poultry feeding: a review. World’s Poultry Science Journal. 51: 271–291. [Link]

Klandorf H & Harvey S. 1985. Food intake regulation of circulating thyroid hormones in domestic fowl. General and Comparative Endocrinology, 60: 162–170. [Link]

Langhout DJ, Schutte JB, Geerse C, Kies AK, De Jong J & Verstegen MWA. 1997. Effects on chick performance and nutrient digestibility of an endo‐xylanase added to a wheat‐and rye‐based diet in relation to fat source. British Poultry Science, 38: 557–563. [Link]

Lázaro R, Garcia M, Aranibar MJ & Mateos GG. 2003. Effect of enzyme addition to wheat-, barley-and rye-based diets on nutrient digestibility and performance of laying hens. British Poultry Science, 44: 256–265. [Link]

Leeson S, Caston L, Kiaei MM & Jones R. 2000. Commercial enzymes and their influence on broilers fed wheat or barley. Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 9: 242–251. [Link]

Lohmann Tierzucht. 2005. Layer management guide: Lohmann LSL Classic. In Lohmann Tierzucht GmBh. Cuxhaven, Germany. [Link]

Mathlouthi N, Mohamed MA & Larbier M. 2003. Effect of enzyme preparation containing xylanase and β-glucanase on performance of laying hens fed wheat/barley-or maize/soybean meal-based diets. British Poultry Science, 44: 60–66. [Link]

McCleary BV. 2003. Dietary fibre analysis. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 62: 3–9. [Link]

Mirzaee M, Torki M, & Habibian M. 2014. Effects of wheat cultivar, metabolizable energy level, and xylanase supplementation to laying hens diet on performance, egg quality traits, and selected blood parameters. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research, 12: 1071–1081. [Link]

NRC (National Research Council). 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry. 9th Rev. Ed. National Academy Press. Washington, DC. 176 Pages. [Link]

Onderci M, Sahin N, Cikim G, Aydin A, Ozercan I, Ozkose E, Ekinci S, Hayirli A & Sahin K. 2008. β-Glucanase-producing bacterial culture improves performance and nutrient utilization and alters gut morphology of broilers fed a barley-based diet. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 146: 87–97. [Link]

Ooi GT, Tawadros N & Escalona RM. 2004. Pituitary cell lines and their endocrine applications. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, 228: 1–21. [Link]

Perez-Vendrell AM, Francesch M, Esteve-Garcia E & Brufau J. 1993. β-glucan content of barley grown in Spain determined by HPLC. Paper presented at: Proceedings of the 1st Symposium on Enzymes in Animal Nutrition; Kartause Ittingen, Switzerland.

Radcliffe JS, Robbins BC, Rice JP, Pleasant RS & Kornegay ET. 1999. The effects of hemicell on digestibilities of minerals, energy, and amino acids in pigs fitted with steered ileo-cecal cannulas and fed a low and high protein corn-soybean meal diet. Journal of Animal Science, 77: 197 (Suppl. 1.).

Ravindran V, Tilman ZV, Morel PCH, Ravindran G & Coles GD. 2007. Influence of β-glucanase supplementation on the metabolisable energy and ileal nutrient digestibility of normal starch and waxy barleys for broiler chickens. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 134: 45–55. [Link]

Rouau X & Surget A. 1994. A rapid semi-automated method for the determination of total and water-extractable pentosans in wheat flours. Carbohydrate Polymers, 24: 123–132. [Link]

SAS (Statistical Analysis System). 2003. SAS/STAT® 9.1. User's Guide. SAS Institute Inc. Cary, North Carolina. [Link]

Scott TA & Boldaji F. 1997. Comparison of inert markers [chromic oxide or insoluble ash (Celite)] for determining apparent metabolizable energy of wheat-or barley-based broiler diets with or without enzymes. Poultry Science, 76: 594–598. [Link]

Sechman A, Pawłowska K & Rzasa J. 2009. Influence of triiodothyronine (T3) on secretion of steroids and thyroid hormone receptor expression in chicken ovarian follicles. Domestic Animal Endocrinology, 37: 61–73. [Link]

Singh DN, Cadogan D, Ru YJ, Trappett PC, Nagle TA & Finn A. 2006. Highly viscous barley plus Avizyme 1210 gives good broiler performance. 18th Australian Poultry Science Symposium. Sydney, New South Wales. Pages, 58–61. [Link]

Storsley JM, Izydorczyk MS, You S, Biliaderis CG & Rossnagel B. 2003. Structure and physicochemical properties of β-glucans and arabinoxylans isolated from hull-less barley. Food Hydrocolloids, 17: 831–844. [Link]

Swennen Q, Janssens GPJ, Millet S, Vansant G, Decuypere E & Buyse J. 2005. Effect of substitution between fat and protein on feed intake and its regulatory mechanisms in broiler chickens: endocrine functioning and intermediary metabolism. Poultry Science, 84: 1051–1057. [Link]

Tivey DR, Morovat A & Dauncey MJ. 1993. Administration of 3, 5, 3'-triiodothyronine induces a rapid increase in enterocyte lactase-phlorizin hydrolase activity of young pigs on a low energy intake. Experimental Physiology, 78: 337–346. [Link]

Villamide MJ, Fuente JM, Perez de Ayala P & Flores A. 1997. Energy evaluation of eight barley cultivars for poultry: effect of dietary enzyme addition. Poultry Science, 76: 834-840. [Link]

Vuilleumier JP. 1969. The ‘Roche yolk colour fan’—an instrument for measuring yolk colour. Poultry Science, 48: 767–779. [Link]

Vukic Vranjes M & Wenk C. 1996. Influence of Trichoderma viride enzyme complex on nutrient utilization and performance of laying hens in diets with and without antibiotic supplementation. Poultry Science, 75: 551–555. [Link]

Wu G, Bryant MM, Voitle RA & Roland DA. 2005. Effects of β-mannanase in corn-soy diets on commercial leghorns in second-cycle hens. Poultry Science, 84: 894–897. [Link]

Zangeneh S & Torki M. 2011. Effects of β-mannanase supplementing of olive pulp-included diet on performance of laying hens, egg quality characteristics, humoral and cellular immune response and blood parameters. Global Veterinaria, 7: 391–398. [Link]

Zuelke KA & Brackett BG. 1993. Increased glutamin metabolism in bovine cumulus cell-enclosed and denuded oocytes after in vitro maturation with luteinizing hormone. Biology of Reproduction, 48: 815–820. [Link]