Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agricultural, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.
An experiment was conducted to study the effects of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) on post-peak performance and serum enzymes of Hy-Line W-36 laying hens from 32-36 weeks of age. The experiment was carried out with a total of 192 laying hens in a completely randomized block design. During the experiment laying hens were allocated to 4 groups consisted of T1) no CCl4 as control diet, T2, T3 and T4) control diet supplemented with 1, 3 and 5 mL CCl4/100 g diet, respectively. Each experimental group was divided into 6 blocks of 8 hens each. Egg production, cracked egg percentage and feed intake were recorded weekly. Blood samples were taken from wing veins of hens at the middle and end of the experiment to measure serum hepatic enzymes of alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase. Data showed that in comparison with the control group, the inclusion of CCl4 to the diets had no significant effect on performance parameters. However, by increasing the level of CCl4, egg production was linearly decreased and feed intake was linearly increased (P < 0.05). The effect of CCl4 on cracked eggs was significant and this effect was linearly increased (P < 0.05). Dietary supplementation of 3 and 5 mL CCl4 elevated the serum concentration of hepatic enzymes of alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, linearly (P < 0.0001). In conclusion, the dietary supplementation of CCl4 has the ability to decrease the performance and egg quality. CCl4 is also a potent hepatic toxicity inducer and may damage liver hepatocytes. Therefore, the level of 3 mL CCl4 was assigned as the one had the maximum negative effect on serum hepatic enzymes concentration (maximum liver damage) alongside the minimum negative effect on laying hen performance for further studies.
Ali SA, Faddah L, Abdel-Baky A & Bayoumi A. 2010. Protective effect of L-carnitine and coenzyme Q10 on CCl4-induced liver injury in rats. Scientia Pharmaceutica, 78: 881-896. [Link]
Applegate TJ, Schatzmayr G, Prickel K, Troche C & Jiang Z. 2009. Effect of aflatoxin culture on intestinal function and nutrient loss in laying hens. Poultry Science, 88: 1235-1241. [Link]
Díaz Gómez MI, de Castro CR, D’Acosta N, de Fenos OM, Ferreyra EC & Castro JA. 1975. Species differences in carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity: The role of CCl4 activation and of lipid peroxidation. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 34: 102-114. [Link]
Hy-Line International. 2005. Hy-Line W-36 Commercial Management Guide. Hy-Line Int., West Des Moines, IA. [Link]
Khorramshahi M, Samadi F & Ganji F. 2014. The effects of Cynara scolymus L. on carbon tetrachloride induced liver toxicity in Japanese quail. International Journal of Agricultural Science, 4: 362-369. [Link]
Mandrekar P & Szabo G. 2009. Signaling pathways in alcohol-induced liver inflammation. Journal of Hepatology, 50: 1258-1266. [Link]
Mansour MA. 2000. Protective effect of thymoquinone and desferrioxamine against hepatotoxicity of carbon tetrachloride in mice. Life Sciences, 66: 2583-2591. [Link]
Nateghi R. 2011. The effect of artichoke on liver histopathology and blood parameters of broilers. M.Sc. thesis. Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources.
Nateghi R, Samadi F, Ganji F & Zerehdaran S. 2013. Hepatoprotective effects of Cynara scolymus L. extract on CCl4 induced liver injury in broiler chickens. International Journal of AgriScience, 3: 678-688. [Link]
Panovska TK, Kulevanova S, Gjorgoski I, Bogdanova M &Petrushevska G. 2007. Hepatoprotective effect of the ethyl acetate extract of Teucrium polium L. against carbontetrachloride-induced hepatic injury in rats. Acta Pharmaceutica, 57: 241-248.[Link]
Robjohns S. 2009. Carbon tetrachloride toxicological overview. Health Protection Agency, 1-11.
Samadi F, Poorkhanjar A. Ganji F & Samadi S. 2015. Effect of Chavir (Ferulagoangulata) powder on liver and blood parameters of Japanese quail intoxicated with CCl4. Iranian Journal of Animal Science Research, 6: 342-350. (in Persian with English abstract, Page: 40). [Link]
SAS Institute Inc. 2001. SAS User’s Guide.Release 8.2. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC. [Link]
Slater TF. 1966. Necrogenic action of carbon tetrachloride in the rat: a speculative mechanism based on activation. Nature, 209: 36-40. [Link]
Sonkusale P, Bhandarker AG, Kurkare NV, Ravikanth K, Maini S & Sood D. 2011. Hepatoprotective activity of superliv liquid and repchol in CCl4 induced FLKS syndrome in broilers. International Journal of Poultry Science, 10: 49-55. [Link]