1Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran.
2Department of Basic Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran.
3Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran.
This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of supplemental L-arginine (ARG) in reduced-protein diets on cardiopulmonary performance and intestinal morphology in the broilers reared at high altitude. A total of 156 day-old male broilers were randomly assigned to 3 treatments and 4 replicates of 13 chicks and reared up to 42 days of age. Treatment groups were designed as a normal-protein diet (NPD), a reduced-protein diet (RPD) with 30 g/Kg less crude protein compared to the NPD, and a reduced-protein diet plus 4 g/Kg L-arginine (RPD + ARG). There were no significant differences among dietary treatments for intestinal morphology and weight gain. Feed conversion ratio was improved in the chickens fed RPD + ARG compared to those fed RPD alone. The right to total ventricular weight ratio (RV:TV) was significantly increased in the chickens fed RPD when compared to those fed NPD or RPD + ARG. Serum nitric oxide and amplitude of the S waves of electrocardiogram significantly declined by reducing dietary protein content. Relative expression of endothelin-1 (ET-1) gene was higher in the heart and lungs of chicks fed RPD than those fed NPD and it was off set when ARG supplemented to RPD (P). In conclusion, supplementing reduced-protein diets with ARG would be an effective strategy to prevent the development of pulmonary hypertension by increase in nitric oxide, and decrease in RV:TV and ET-1 gene expression.
Ahmadipour B, Hassanpour H, Asadi E, Khajali F, Rafiei F & Khajali F. 2015. Kelussia odoratissima Mozzaf-A promising medicinal herb to prevent pulmonary hypertension in broiler chickens reared at high altitude. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 159: 49-54.
Aletor VA, Hamid II, Niess E & Pfeffer E. 2000. Low-protein amino acid-supplemented diets in broiler chickens: effects on performance, carcass characteristics, whole-body composition and efficiencies of nutrient utilisation. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 80: 547-554.
Alonso D & Radomski MW. 2003. The nitric oxide-endothelin-1 connection. Heart Failure Reviews, 8: 107-115.
Andrews RP & Baldar NA. 1985. Amino acid analysis of feed constituents. Science Tools, 32: 44–48.
Balog JM. 2003. Ascites syndrome (pulmonary hypertension syndrome) in broiler chickens: are we seeing the light at the end of the tunnel? Avian and Poultry Biology Reviews, 14: 99-126.
Basoo H, Khajali F, Asadi Khoshoui E, Faraji M & Wideman RF. 2012. Re-evaluation of arginine requirements for broilers exposed to hypobaric condition during the 3-to 6-week period. Journal of Poultry Science, 49: 303-307.
Behrooj N, Khajali F & Hassanpour H. 2012. Feeding reduced-protein diets to broilers subjected to hypobaric hypoxia is associated with the development of pulmonary hypertension syndrome. British Poultry Science, 53: 658-664.
Dorak MT. 2006. Real Time PCR. 1st Ed. Taylor and Francis, Oxford Publications. UK. 333 Pages.
Hassanpour H, Yazdani A, Khabir Soreshjani K & Asgharzadeh S. 2009a. Evaluation of endothelial and inducible nitric oxide synthase genes expression in the heart of broiler chickens with experimental pulmonary hypertension. British Poultry Science, 50: 725-732.
Hassanpour H, Moghaddam AKZ & Zarei H. 2009b. Effect of citric acid on electrocardiographic parameters of broiler chickens with pulmonary hypertension. Acta Veterinaria Hungarica, 57: 229-238.
Hassanpour H, Teshfam M, Momtaz H, Brujeni GN & Shahgholian L. 2010. Up-regulation of Endothelin-1 and Endothelin type A receptor genes expression in the heart of broiler chickens versus layer chickens. Research in Veterinary Science, 89: 352-357.
Hassanpour H, Momtaz H, Shahgholian L, Bagheri R, Sarfaraz S & Heydaripoor B. 2011. Gene expression of endothelin-1 and its receptors in the heart of broiler chickens with T 3-induced pulmonary hypertension. Research in Veterinary Science 91: 370-375.
Hassanpour H, Zamani Moghaddam AK, Khosravi M & Mayahi M. 2013. Effects of synbiotic on the intestinal morphology and humoral immune response in broiler chickens. Livestock Science, 153: 116-122.
Hassanzadeh M, Buyse J & Decuypere E. 2008. Further evidence for the involvement of anatomical parameters of the cardiopulmonary system in the development of ascites syndrome in broiler chickens. Acta Veterinaria Hungarica, 56: 71-80.
Izadinia M, Nobakht M, Khajali F, Faraji M, Zamani F, Qujeq D & Karimi I. 2010. Pulmonary hypertension and ascites as affected by dietary protein source in broiler chickens reared in cool temperature at high altitudes. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 155: 194-200.
Kamran Z, Sarwar M, Nisa M, Nadeem MA, Mahmood S, Babar ME & Ahmed S. 2008. Effect of low-protein diets having constant energy-to-protein ratio on performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens from one to thirty-five days of age. Poultry Science, 87: 468-474.
Khajali F, Khoshouie EA, Dehkordi SK & Hematian M. 2008. Production performance and egg quality of Hy-line W36 laying hens fed reduced-protein diets at a constant total sulfur amino acid: lysine ratio. Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 17: 390-397.
Khajali F & Wideman RF. 2010. Dietary arginine: metabolic, environmental, immunological and physiological interrelationships. World's Poultry Science Journal, 66: 751-766.
Khajali F & Saedi M. 2011. The effect of low chloride and high bicarbonate diets on growth, blood parameters, and pulmonary hypertensive response in broiler chickens reared at high altitude. Archiv für Geflügelkunde, 75: 235-238.
Khajali F, Tahmasebi M, Hassanpour H, Akbari MR, Qujeq D & Wideman RF. 2011. Effects of supplementation of canola meal-based diets with arginine on performance, plasma nitric oxide, and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens grown at high altitude. Poultry Science, 90: 2287-2294.
Khajali F, Moghaddam MH & Hassanpour H. 2014. An L-Arginine supplement improves broiler hypertensive response and gut function in broiler chickens reared at high altitude. International Journal of Biometeorology, 58: 1175-1179.
Murakami AE, Fernandes JI, Hernandes L & Santos TC. 2012. Effects of starter diet supplementation with arginine on broiler production performance and on small intestine morphometry. Pesquisa Veterinaria Brasileira, 32: 259-266.
NRC (National Research Council). 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry. 9th Rev. Ed. National Academy Press. Washington, DC. 176 Pages.
Ruijter JM, Ramakers C, Hoogaars WMH, Karlen Y, Bakker O, Van den Hoff MJB & Moorman AFM. 2009. Amplification efficiency: linking baseline and bias in the analysis of quantitative PCR data. Nucleic Acids Research, 37: 1-12
Ruiz-Feria CA. 2009. Concurrent supplementation of arginine, vitamin E, and vitamin C improve cardiopulmonary performance in broilers chickens. Poultry Science, 88: 526-535.
Saki A, Haghighat M & Khajali F. 2013. Supplemental arginine administered in ovo or in the feed reduces the susceptibility of broilers to pulmonary hypertension syndrome. British Poultry Science 54: 575-580.
SAS Institute Inc. 2007. SAS/STAT User’s Guide Release 9. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC.
Shah R. 2007. Endothelins in health and disease. European Journal of Internal Medicine, 18: 272-282.
Sharifi M, Khajali F, Hassanpour H, Pour-Reza J, & Pirany N. 2015. L-Arginine supplementation of reduced-protein diets improves pulmonary hypertensive response in broiler chickens reared at high altitude. British Poultry Science, DOI:10.1080/00071668.2015.1054258 (published online).
Tan X, Pan JQ, Li JC, Liu YJ, Sun WD & Wang XL. 2005. L-Arginine inhibiting pulmonary vascular remodelling is associated with promotion of apoptosis in pulmonary arterioles smooth muscle cells in broilers. Research in Veterinary Science, 79: 203-209.
Tan X, Hu SH & Wang XL. 2007. Possible role of nitric oxide in the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension in broilers: a synopsis. Avian Pathology, 36: 261-267.
Tan J, Applegate TJ, Liu S, Guo Y & Eicher SD. 2014. Supplemental dietary L-arginine attenuates intestinal mucosal disruption during a coccidial vaccine challenge in broiler chickens. British Journal of Nutrition, 7: 1098-1109
Wideman RF. 2001. Pathophysiology of heart/lung disorders: pulmonary hypertension syndrome in broiler chickens. World’s Poultry Science Journal, 57: 289-307.
Wideman RF, Kirby YK, Tackett CD, Marson NE & McNew RW. 1996. Cardio-pulmonary function during acute unilateral occlusion of the pulmonary artery in broilers fed diets containing normal or high levels of arginine-HCl. Poultry Science, 75: 1587-1602.
Yousefi A, Khajali F, Hassanpour H & Khajali Z. 2013. Dietary L-carnitine improves pulmonary hypertensive response in broiler chickens subjected to hypobaric hypoxia. Journal of Poultry Science, 50: 143-149.
Please cite this article as: Sharifi MR, Khajali F, Hassanpour H, Pour-Reza J and Pirany N. 2015. Supplemental L-arginine modulates developmental pulmonary hypertension in broiler chickens fed reduced-protein diets and reared at high altitude. Poult. Sci. J. 3 (1): 47-58.