Aviagen. 2009. Ross 308 Broiler Nutrition Specifications. http://en.aviagen.com/ross-308/.
Chung TK, Rutherfurd SM, Thomas DV & Moughan PJ. 2013. Effect of two microbial phytases on mineral availability and retention and bone mineral density in low-phosphorus diets for broilers. British Poultry Science, 54: 362-373.
Cowieson AJ, Wilcock P & Bedford MR. 2011. Super-dosing effects of phytase in poultry and other monogastrics. World's Poultry Science Journal, 67: 225-235.
Dilger RN, Onyango EM, Sands JS & Adeola O. 2004. Evaluation of microbial phytase in broiler diets. Poultry Science, 83: 962-970.
Gehring CK, Bedford MR & Dozier WA. 2013. Extra-phosphoric effects of phytase with and without xylanase in corn-soybean meal-based diets fed to broilers. Poultry Science, 92: 979-991.
Han JC, Yang XD, Qu HX, Xu M, Zhang T, Li WL, Yao JH, Liu YR, Shi BJ, Zhou ZF & Feng XY. 2009. Evaluation of equivalency values of microbial phytase to inorganic phosphorus in 22- to 42-day-old broilers. Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 18: 707-715.
Jendza JA, Dilger RN, Sands JS & Adeola O. 2006. Efficacy and equivalency of an Escherichia coli-derived phytase for replacing inorganic phosphorus in the diets of broiler chickens and young pigs. Journal of Animal Science, 84: 3364-3374.
Leske KL & Coon CN. 1999. A bioassay to determine the effect of phytase on phytate phosphorus hydrolysis and total phosphorus retention of feed ingredients as determined with broilers and laying hens. Poultry Science, 78: 1151–1157.
Liu N, Ru YJ, Cowieson AJ, Li FD & Cheng XCH. 2008. Effects of phytate and phytase on the performance and immune function of broilers fed nutritionally marginal diets. Poultry Science, 87: 1105-1111.
Liu N, Ru Y, Wang J & Xu T. 2010. Effect of dietary sodium phytate and microbial phytase on the lipase activity and lipid metabolism of broiler chickens. British Journal of Nutrition, 103: 862-868.
Maenz DD, Engele-Schaan CM, Newkirk RW & Classen HL. 1999. The effect of minerals and mineral chelators on the formation of phytase-resistant and phytase-susceptible forms of phytic acid in solution and in a slurry of canola meal. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 81: 177-192.
NRC (National Research Council). 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry. 9th Rev. Ed. National Academy Press. Washington, DC. 176 Pages.
Olukosi OA, Cowieson AJ & Adeola O. 2007. Age-related influence of a cocktail of xylanase, amylase, and protease or phytase individually or in combination in broilers. Poultry Science, 86: 77-86.
Parmer TG, Carew LB, Alster FA & Scanes CG. 1987. Thyroid function, growth hormone, and organ growth in broilers deficient in phosphorus. Poultry Science, 66: 1995-2004.
Pirgozliev V, Acamovic T & Bedford MR. 2009. Previous exposure to dietary phytase reduces the endogenous energy losses from precision-fed chickens. British Poultry Science, 50: 598-605.
Pirgozliev V & Bedford MR. 2013. Energy utilisation and growth performance of chicken fed diets containing graded levels of supplementary bacterial phytase. British Journal of Nutrition, 109: 248-253.
Pirgozliev V, Karadas F, Pappas A, Acamovic T & Bedford MR. 2010. The effect on performance, energy metabolism and hepatic carotenoid content when phytase supplemented diets were fed to broiler chickens. Research in Veterinary Science, 89: 203-205.
Pirgozliev V, Oduguwa O, Acamovic T & Bedford MR. 2007. Diets containing Escherichia coli-derived phytase on young chickens and turkeys: Effects on performance, metabolizable energy, endogenous secretions, and intestinal morphology. Poultry Science, 86: 705-713.
Pirgozliev V, Oduguwa O, Acamovic T & Bedford MR. 2008. Effects of dietary phytase on performance and nutrient metabolism in chickens. British Poultry Science, 49: 144-154.
Radcliffe JS, Zhang Z & Kornegay ET. 1998. The effects of microbial phytase, citric acid, and their interaction in a corn-soybean meal-based diet for weanling pigs. Journal of Animal Science, 76: 1880-1886.
Rutherfurd SM, Chung TK, Thomas DV, Zou ML & Moughan PJ. 2012. Effect of a novel phytase on growth performance, apparent metabolizable energy, and the availability of minerals and amino acids in a low-phosphorus corn-soybean meal diet for broilers. Poultry Science, 91: 1118-1127.
SAS (Statistical Analysis System). 2003. SAS/STAT® 9.1. User’s Guide. SAS Institute Inc. Cary, North Carolina.
Selle PH & Ravindran V. 2007. Microbial phytase in poultry nutrition. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 35: 1-41.
Shaw AL, Hess JB, Blake JP & Ward NE. 2011. Assessment of an experimental phytase enzyme product on live performance, bone mineralization, and phosphorus excretion in broiler chickens. Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 20: 561-566.
Shirley RB & Edwards HM. 2003. Graded levels of phytase past industry standards improves broiler performance. Poultry Science, 82: 671-680.
Simon O & Igbasan F. 2002. In vitro properties of phytases from various microbial origins. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 37: 813-822.
Snow JL, Baker DH & Parsons CM. 2004. Phytase, citric acid, and 1α-hydroxycholecalciferol improve phytate phosphorus utilization in chicks fed a corn-soybean meal diet. Poultry Science, 83: 1187-1192.
Taheri HR, Heidari A & Shahir MH. 2015. Effect of high-dose phytase supplementation in broilers from 22 to 42 days post-hatch given diets severely limited in available phosphorus. British Poultry Science, 56: 330-336.
Walk CL, Bedford MR & McElroy AP. 2012. Influence of limestone and phytase on broiler performance, gastrointestinal pH, and apparent ileal nutrient digestibility. Poultry Science, 91: 1371-1378.
Walk CL, Bedford MR, Santos TS, Paiva D, Bradley JR, Wladecki H, Honaker C & McElroy AP. 2013. Extra-phosphoric effects of superdoses of a novel microbial phytase. Poultry Science, 92: 719-725.
Walk CL, Santos TT & Bedford MR. 2014. Influence of superdoses of a novel microbial phytase on growth performance, tibia ash, and gizzard phytate and inositol in young broilers. Poultry Science, 93: 1172-1177.
Woyengo TA, Guenter W, Sands JS, Nyachoti CM & Mirza MA. 2008. Nutrient utilisation and performance responses of broilers fed a wheat-based diet supplemented with phytase and xylanase alone or in combination. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 146: 113-123.
Woyengo TA, Slominski BA & Jones RO. 2010. Growth performance and nutrient utilization of broiler chickens fed diets supplemented with phytase alone or in combination with citric acid and multicarbohydrase. Poultry Science, 89: 2221-2229.
Zhang ZB, Kornegay ET, Radcliffe JS, Denbow DM, Veit HP & Larsen CT. 2000. Comparison of genetically engineered microbial and plant phytase for young broilers. Poultry Science, 79: 709-717.
Please cite this article as: Taheri HR & Taherkhani S. 2015. Effect of phytase superdoses and citric acid on growth performance, plasma phosphorus and tibia ash in broilers fed canola meal-based diets severely limited in available phosphorus. Poult. Sci. J. 3 (1): 27-36.