Introduction of a Greenhouse as an Alternative Housing System to a Conventional House and Its Impact on Broiler Performance and Blood and Carcass Variables

Document Type: Original Paper

Authors

1 Faculty of Agriculture, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran.

2 Animal Extension Bureau, Jihad Agriculture, Shahrekord, Iran.

Abstract

A study was conducted to compare the growth performance as well as blood and carcass variables of two broiler strains reared in a conventional broiler house and a modified greenhouse equipped with cooling pads and tunnel ventilation system. Eight hundred day-old chickens of two commercial strains (Ross  308 and Lohmann) were selected and placed in  8 floor pens (4 pens of  50 broilers for each strain in each housing system). The pens were located randomly throughout the modified greenhouse or the conventional broiler house (two-way ANOVA design). The broilers were provided a standard starter and grower diets  ad libitum. The environmental conditions (i.e.  temperature, relative humidity, lighting program and ventilation rate) were kept  similar between the two houses. The results showed that the birds in the greenhouse consumed significantly (P<0.05) more feed during the starter period (1-21d) and throughout the trial (1-42d) in comparison with those reared in the conventional house. Strain difference and strain × house interaction had no significant effect on the measured parameters i.e. body weight gain, feed conversion ratio,  hematocrit,  heterophil:lymphocyte ratio, serum nitric oxide concentration, carcass and breast yields. However, birds reared in the green house deposited more fat in their abdominal cavity compared to their counterparts in the conventional house (P<0.05). Interestingly, from the economic point of view, the construction cost of a greenhouse was estimated approximately one-third of a conventional house (≈40.00 vs 120.00 US$ per square meter). In conclusion, modified greenhouses equipped with cooling pads and tunnel  ventilation system are recommended for low-cost rearing of broiler chickens.

Keywords


Bartok JW. 1996. Greenhouses for calf and heifer housing.  In: Calves, heifers and dairy profitability. NRAES Press, Ithaca, NY. Pages, 114-126.

Beker A, Vanhooser SL, Swartzlander JH & Teeter RG. 2003. Graded atmospheric oxygen level effects on performance and ascites incidence in broilers. Poultry Science, 82: 1550-1553.

Buyse J, Kuhn ER & Decuypere E. 1996. The use of intermittent lighting in broiler raising.  1. Effect on broiler performance and efficiency of nitrogen retention. Poultry Science, 75: 589-594.

Charles D & Walker A. 2002. Poultry environment problems: a guide to solutions. 1st Ed. Nottingham University Press. UK. 88 Pages.

Crespo N & Esteve-Garcia E. 2001. Dietary fatty acid profile modifies abdominal fat deposition in broiler chickens. Poultry Science, 80: 71-78.  

Downs KM,  Lien  RJ,  Hess  JB,  Bilgili  SF  &  Dozier  WA.  2006. The effects of photoperiod length, light intensity, and feed energy on growth responses and meat yield of broilers. Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 15: 406416.

Gross WB & Siegel HS. 1983. Evaluation of the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio as a measure of stress in chickens. Avian Diseases, 27: 972-979.

Hortelano S, Dewes B, Genaro AM, Diaz-Guerra J & Bosca L. 1995. Nitric oxide is released in regenerating liver after partial hepatectomy. Hepatology, 21: 776-786.

Izadinia M, Nobakht M, Khajali F, Faraji M, Zamani F, Qujeq D & Karimi I. 2010.Pulmonary hypertension and ascites as affected by dietary protein source in broiler chickens reared in cool temperature at high altitudes.  Animal Feed Science and Technology, 155: 194-200.

Julian RJ. 2007. The response of heart and pulmonary arteries to hypoxia, pressure and volume. a short review. Poultry Science, 86: 1006-1011.  

Khajali F  &  Wideman  RF.  2010.  Dietary arginine: Metabolic, environmental, immunological and physiological interrelationships. World’s  Poultry  Science Journal, 66: 751- 765. 

Khajali F,  Liyanage  R  &  Wideman  RF.  2011.  Methylglyoxal and pulmonary hypertension in broiler chickens. Poultry Science, 90: 1284-1296.

Khantaprab S, Nikki T & Nobukuni K. 1997. Effect of restricted feed intake on the growth of muscle and the fat deposition in broiler chickens. Poultry  Science, 34: 363- 372.

Lien RJ, Hess JB, McKee SR, Bilgili SF & Townsend JC. 2007. Effect of light intensity and photoperiod on live performance, heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, and processing yields of broilers. Poultry Science, 86: 1287-1293.

Lien RJ, Hess  JB, McKee  SR  &  Bilgili  SF.  2008. Effect of light intensity on live performance and processing characteristics of broilers. Poultry  Science, 87: 853-857.

Newberry RC,  Hunt  JR  &  Gardiner  EE.  1986. Light intensity effects on performance, activity, leg disorders, and sudden death syndrome of roaster chickens. Poultry Science, 65: 2232–2238.
NRC (National Research Council). 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry. 9th Rev. Ed. National academy Press. Washington, DC. 176 Pages.

Ricciardolo FL, Sterk MPJ, Gaston B & Folkerts G. 2003. Nitric oxide in health and disease of the respiratory system. Physiological Reviews, 84: 731-765.  

SAS (Statistical Analysis System). 2005. JMP Version 6 User’s Guide. SAS Institute Inc. Cary, NC.

Weaver WD.  2002. Poultry housing. In: Bell DD & Weaver WD. (Eds). Commercial chicken meat and egg production. Kluwer Academic Publishers. Massachusetts. US. Pages, 101-128.

Please cite this article as: Khajali F, Faraji M & Rafiei Boroujeni F. 2013. Introduction of a greenhouse as an alternative housing system to a conventional house and its impact on broiler performance, blood and carcass variables. Poult. Sci. J. 1 (1): 1-11.