Abbas RJ, Al-Shaheen SA & Majeed TI. 2016. Effect of supplementing different levels of pumpkin seed oil in the diets of spent laying Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Association of Genetic and Environmental Resources Conservation (AGERC), Proceeding of the 4th International Conference of Genetic and Environment, Cairo, Egypt.
Abd El-Hack ME, Alagawany M, Laudadio V, Demauro R & Tufarelli V. 2017. Dietary inclusion of raw faba bean instead of soybean meal and enzyme supplementation in laying hens: Effect on performance and egg quality. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences, 24: 276–285. DOI: 10.1016/j.sjbs.2015.05.009
Abdel Atti KA, Ali FM, Dousa BM & Elamin, KM. 2013. Performance and blood chemistry of broiler birds fed different levels of dietary Rashad (Lepidium sativum). World Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 5: 782-786.
Adlband M, Mohammadi M & Mohiti-Asli M. 2016. Effect of different levels of garden cress (Lepidium sativum) seed hydroalcoholic extract on growth performance, blood lipids and intestinal bacterial populations of Japanese quail. Journal of Animal Science, 27(1): 29-39.
Agarwal J & Verma DL. 2011. Antioxidative activity and flavonoid composition from Lepidium sativum. Nature and Science, 9: 21-25.
Aguillon-Paez, Laura AR & Gonzalo JD. 2020. Effect of full-fat sunflower or flaxseed seeds dietary inclusion on performance, egg yolk fatty acid profile and egg quality in laying hens. Animal Nutrition, 6: 179e184. DOI: 10.1016/j.aninu.2019.12.005
Ahmad S, Yousaf M, Sabri MA & Kamran Z. 2012. Response of laying hens to omega-3 fatty acids for performance and egg quality. Avian Biology Research, 5(1): 1-10. DOI: 10.3184/175815512X13291506128070
Al Hamedan WA. 2010. Protective effect of Lepidium sativum L. seeds powder and extract on hypercholesterolemic rats. Journal of American Science, 6(11).
Al-Sayed HMA, Zidan NS & Abdelaleem MA. 2019. Utilization of garden cress seeds (Lepidium sativum L.) as natural source of protein and dietary fiber in noodles. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Research & Allied Sciences, 8(3): 17–28.
Al-Taee NSN. 2013. Effect of seeds extraction of lepidium sativum on zinc and iron elements and some biochemical parameters in serum of white male rabbits. Euphrates Journal of Agriculture Science, 5: 23-35.
Awosanya B & Joseph JK. 1998. The effect of age of bird on shell quality and component yield of eggs. University of Ilorin, Nigeria, DOI: 10.51791/njap.v25i1.2227
Aydin R & Dogan I. 2010. Fatty acid profile and cholesterol content of egg yolk from chickens fed diets supplemented with purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.). Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 90: 1759 – 1763. DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.4018
Bardaa S, Ben Halima N, Aloui F, Ben Mansour R, Jabeur H, Bouaziz M & Sahnoun Z. 2016. Oil from pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) seeds: evaluation of its functional properties on wound healing in rats. Lipids in Health and Disease, 15: 73. DOI: 10.1186/s12944-016-0237-0
Betancourt L & Díaz G. 2009. Egg enrichment with omega-3 fatty acids by means of flaxseed supplement (Linum usitatissimum) in the diet. Revista MVZ Córdoba, 14(1): 1602-1610.
Chauhan K, Sharma S, Rohatgi K & Chauhan B. 2012. Antihyperlipidemic and antioxidative efficacy of catharanthus roseus Linn (Sadabahar) in strptozotocin induced diabetic rats. 2012. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Health Sciences, 2: 235-243.
Cherian G & Quezada N. 2016. Egg quality, fatty acid composition and immunoglobulin Y content in eggs from laying hens fed full fat camelina or flax seed. Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology, 7: 15. DOI: 10.1186/s40104-016-0075-y
Ciftci M, Simsek UG, Yuce A, Yilmaz O & Dalkilic B. 2010. Effects of dietary antibiotic and cinnamon oil supplementation on antioxidant enzyme activities, cholesterol levels and fatty acid compositions of serum and meat in broiler chickens. ACTA VETERINARIA BRNO, 79: 33- 40.
Dannehl D, Huyskens-Keil S, Wendorf D, Ulrichs C & Schmidt U. 2012. Influence of intermittent- direct-electric-current (IDC) on phytochemical compounds in garden cress during growth. Food Chemistry, 131: 239–246. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.08.069
Diwakar BT, Dutta PK, Lokesh BR & Naidu KA. 2010. Physicochemical properties garden cress (Lepidium sativum) seed oil. Journal of American Oil Chemists Society, 87: 539–548. DOI: 10.1007/s11746-009-1523-z
Drenjančević I & Pitha, J. 2022. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids—vascular and cardiac effects on the cellular and molecular level. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 23(4): 2104. DOI: 10.3390/ijms23042104
Ebeid T, Eid Y, Saleh A & Abd El-Hamid H. 2008. Ovarian follicular development, lipid peroxidation, antioxidative status and immune response in laying hens fed fish oil-supplemented diets to produce n-3-enriched eggs. Animal, 2(1): 84-91. DOI: 10.1017/S1751731107000882
Ebeid T, Fayoud A, Abou El-Soud S, Eid Y & El-Habbak M. 2011. The effect of omega-3 enriched meat production on lipid peroxidation, antioxidative status, immune response and tibia bone characteristics in Japanese quail. Czech Journal of Animal Science, 56(7): 314-24.
Eisen EJ, Bohren BB & McKean HE. 1962. The Haugh unit as a measure of egg albumen quality. Poultry Science, 41(5): 1461-1468. DOI: 10.3382/ps.0411461
Evaris E, Sarmiento-Franco LA, Segura-Correa J & Capetillo-Leal C. 2015. Effect of dietary inclusion of purslane (portulaca oleracea l.) on yolk omega-3 fatty acids content, egg quality and productive performance of Rhode Island red hens. Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems, 30: 18(1).
Folch J, Lees MG & Stanley HS. 1956. A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipids from animal tissues. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 226: 497-509.
Gutiérrez S, Svahn LS & Johansson ME. 2019. Effects of omega-3 fatty acids on immune cells. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 20(20): 5028. DOI: 10.3390/ijms20205028
Hanson S, Thorpe G, Winstanley L, Abdelhamid A & Hooper L. 2020. Omega-3, omega-6 and total dietary polyunsaturated fat on cancer incidence: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised trials. British Journal of Cancer, 122: 1260–1270 . DOI: 10.1038/s41416-020-0761-6
Hassan RI, El Shoukary RD. 2019. Impact of Dietary Supplementation with Cress Seeds (Lepidium Sativum L.) on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Behavior of Broilers. Alexandria Journal for Veterinary Sciences, 61(2): 38-44.
Kartikasari LR, Hertanto BS & Nuhriawangsa AM. 2020. Egg quality of laying hens fed different diets supplemented with purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) meal rich in alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) Pakistan Academy of Sciences. B. Life and Environmental Sciences, 57 (2): 27-33.
Lim Y & Quah E. 2007. Antioxidant properties of different cultivars of Portulaca oleracea. Food Chemistry, 103(3): 734-740. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.09.025
Mattioli S, Ruggeri S, Sebastiani B, Brecchia G, Dal Bosco A, Cartoni Mancinelli A & Castellini C. 2017. Performance and egg quality of laying hens fed flaxseed: Highlights on n-3 fatty acids, cholesterol, lignans and isoflavones. Animal, 11(4): 705-712. DOI: 10.1017/S175173111600207X
Moazedian M & Saemi F. 2018. Effects of different levels of Portulaca oleracea seed in laying hens diets containing rice bran on performance, egg quality, fatty acids, and cholesterol. Comparative Clinical Pathology, 27: 1397-1403. DOI: 10.1007/s00580-018-2752-z
Nobakht A. 2014. The effects of different Levels of Portulaca oleracea, medicinal plant, on performance, egg quality, blood biochemical and immunity parameters of mature laying hens. Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science, 4(2): 393– 397. DOI: 10.1017/S175173111600207X
NRC (National Research Council). 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry. 9th Rev. Ed. National Academy Press. Washington, DC. 176 Pages.
Sang HJ, Seung HH, Sang HK, Robert HE & Kwang KK. 2021. Cardiovascular effects of omega-3 fatty acids: Hope or hype? Journal of Atherosclerosis, 322: 15-23. DOI: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2021.02.014
SAS (Statistical Analysis System). 2003. SAS/STAT® 9.1. User's Guide. SAS Institute Inc. Cary, North Carolina.
Simopoulos AP. 1991. Omega-3 fatty acid in health and disease and in growth and development. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 54(3): 438-63. DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/54.3.438
Stevenson DG, Eller FJ, Wang L, Jane JL, Wang T & Inglett GE. 2007. Oil and tocopherol content and composition of pumpkin seed oil in 12 cultivars. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 55(10): 4005–4013. DOI: 10.1021/jf0706979
Sultana A & Rahman K. 2013. Portulaca oleracea Linn. A global panacea with ethnomedicinal and pharmacological potential. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 5(2): 33-39.
Uddin MK, Juraimi AS, Hossain MS, Nahar MA, Ali ME & Rahman MM. 2014. Purslane weed (Portulaca oleracea): a prospective plant source of nutrition, omega-3 fatty acid, and antioxidant attributes. The Scientific World Journal: Article ID 951019. DOI: 10.1155/2014/951019
Van Elswyk ME. 1997. Nutritional and physiological effects of flaxseed in diets for laying fowl. World's Poultry Science Journal, 53: 253-264. DOI: 10.1079/WPS19970020
Vlaicu PA & Panaite T. 2022. Effect of dietary pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) seed meal on layer performance and egg quality characteristics. Animal Bioscience, 35(2): 236–246. DOI: 10.5713/ab.21.0044
Yalcyn H, Unal MK & Basmacyoolu H. 2007. The fatty acid and cholesterol composition of enriched egg yolk lipids obtained by modifying hens’ diets with fish oil and flaxseed. Grasas Y Aceites, 58 (4): 372-378. DOI: 10.3989/gya.2007.v58.i4.449
Zhang ZF & Kim IH. 2014. Effects of dietary olive oil on egg quality, serum cholesterol characteristics, and yolk fatty acid concentrations in laying hens. Journal of Applied Animal Research, 42(2): 233-237. DOI: 10.1080/09712119.2013.842480
Zita L, Okrouhlá M, Krunt O, Kraus A, Stádník L, Jaroslav C & Stupka R. 2022. Changes in fatty acids profile, health indices, and physical characteristics of organic eggs from laying hens at the beginning of the first and second laying cycles. Animals, 12: 125. DOI: 10.3390/ani12010125
Zotte A & Pranzo G. 2022. Effects of dried Portulaca oleracea supplementation to the laying hen diet on productive performance, egg physical traits, fatty acid composition, and cholesterol content. Czech Journal of Animal Science, 67: 114–123. DOI:10.17221/9/2022-CJAS