Effect of Yucca Schidigera Supplementation in Diet on the Health Performances, Blood Biomarkers, and Relative Telomere Length of Broiler Chickens Reared Under Tropical Conditions

Document Type : Original Paper

Authors

1 Institute of Tropical Agriculture and Food Security, Universiti Putra Malaysia 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

2 Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

3 Department of Veterinary Clinical Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

Abstract

The main aim of this study was to elucidate the potential of Yucca schidigera supplementation on the health performances, blood biomarkers, and relative telomere length of broilers reared under tropical conditions. A total of 300
one-day-old male Ross 308 broilers were purchased, weighed, and divided randomly into six dietary regimens. The dietary treatments consisted of T1: commercial feed without antibiotics (negative control) and T2: commercial feed added with 100 mg/kg oxytetracycline (positive control). Birds in T3, T4, T5, and T6 were fed with commercial feed supplemented with 25, 50, 75, and 100 mg/kg of powdered Y. schidigera saponins. The broilers were monitored daily and the clinical sign and mortality were recorded. On day 42, ten male broilers from each treatment were randomly selected and slaughtered, and blood samples were collected for leucocyte profiling, immunoglobulins, cytokines, and telomere length analyses. All data obtained were subjected to the Chi-Square Test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and Tukey Post-Hoc Test to determine the significant differences among treatment groups. The data were considered significant at P < 0.05. Throughout the 42-day study, a few cases of leg problems, diarrhea, and mortality were observed, but there were no significant associations (P > 0.05). However, there were significant differences (P < 0.05) in the leucocyte profiling, immunoglobulins, cytokines, and telomere length expression among treatments. Negative control broilers not fed with any additive demonstrated the lowest values as compared to the antibiotic and treatment groups. Overall, T6 broilers fed with a diet supplemented with 100 mg/kg of Y. schidigera saponins exhibited the best leucocyte profiling (increased total WBC count, monocytes, and basophil count; decreased H/L ratio), immunoglobulins (upregulated Ig-G, Ig-A, and Ig-M,), cytokines (increased IL-4 and IL-7), and the longest telomere length expression followed by T2 broilers. In summary, this study has established that 100 mg/kg of Y. schidigera saponins supplementation in diet can be used to enhance the health performances of broilers raised under hot and humid conditions.

Keywords


Alghirani MM, Chung ELT, Jesse FFA, Sazili AQ & Loh TC. 2021a. Could phytobiotics replace antibiotics as feed additives to stimulate production performance and health status in poultry? An Overview. Journal of Advanced Veterinary Research, 11(4): 254-265.
Alghirani MM, Chung ELT, Jesse FFA, Sazili, AQ & Loh TC. 2022. The potential use of plant-derived saponins as a phytobiotic additive in poultry feed for production and health advancement: a comprehensive review. Poultry Science Journal, 10(2): 215-226. DOI: 10.22069/psj.2022.20055.1794
Alghirani MM, Chung ELT, Sabri DSM, Tahir MNJM, Kassim NA, Kamalludin MH, Nayan N, Jesse FFA Sazili AQ & Loh, TC. 2021b. Can Yucca schidigera be used to enhance the growth performance, nutrient digestibility, gut histomorphology, cecal microflora, carcass characteristic, and meat quality of commercial broilers raised under tropical conditions? Animals, 11(8): 2276. DOI: 10.3390/ani11082276
Badmus KA, Idrus Z, Meng GY, Sazili AQ & Mamat-Hamidi K. 2021. Telomere length and regulatory genes as novel stress biomarkers and their diversities in broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) subjected to corticosterone feeding. Animals, 11(10): 2759. DOI: 10.3390/ani11102759
Carisch L, Stirn M, Hatt JM, Federer K, Hofmann-Lehmann R & Riond B. 2019. White blood cell count in birds: evaluation of a commercially available method. BMC Veterinary Research, 15(1): 1-7. DOI: 10.1186/s12917-019-1834-8
Chakma S. 2015. Epidemiology of infectious bursal disease in broiler birds of three districts in Bangladesh. Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, 1(1): 59-64. DOI: 10.3329/ajmbr.v1i1.25499
Chung ELT, Alghirani MM, Kamalludin MH, Nayan N, Jesse FFA, Wei, OTA, Stephen MAFMH, Reduan MFH & Loh TC. 2021. Do different vaccination regimes affect the growth performance, immune status, carcase characteristics and meat quality of broilers? British Poultry Science, 62(1): 32-37. DOI: 10.1080/00071668.2020.1817327
Chung ELT, Nayan N, Kamalludin MH, Alghirani MM, Jesse FFA, Kassim NA, Azizi A, Reduan MFH & Loh TC. 2020. The effects of alkaline water and rainwater on the production and health performance of commercial broilers under tropical conditions. The Thai Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 50(1): 65-73.
Chung ELT, Predith M, Nobilly F, Samsudin AA, Jesse FFA, & Loh TC. 2018. Can treatment of Brachiaria decumbens (signal grass) improve its utilisation in the diet in small ruminants? A review. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 50(8): 1727-1732. DOI: 10.1007/s11250-018-1641-4
Clavijo V & Flórez MJV. 2018. The gastrointestinal microbiome and its association with the control of pathogens in broiler chicken production: A review. Poultry Science, 97(3): 1006-1021. DOI: 10.3382/ps/pex359
Dhama K, Latheef SK, Saminathan M, Samad HA, Karthik K, Tiwari R, Khan RU, Alagawany M, Farag MR, Gazi MA, Laudadio V, & Tufarelli V. 2015. Multiple beneficial applications and modes of action of herbs in poultry health and production: A review. International Journal of Pharmacology, 11: 152-176. DOI: 10.3923/ijp.2015.152.176
Factor-Litvak P, Susser E & Aviv A. 2017. Environmental exposures, telomere length at birth, and disease susceptibility in later life. JAMA Pediatrics, 171(12): 1143-1144. DOI: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2017.3562
Fleck JD, Schwambach J, Almeida ME, Yendo AC, de Costa F, Gosmann G & Fett-Neto AG. 2009. Immunoadjuvant saponin production in seedlings and micropropagated plants of Quillaja brasiliensis. In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology-Plant, 45(6): 715-720. DOI: 10.1016/S0169-409X(98)00013-1
Güçlü-Üstünda─č Ö & Mazza G. 2007. Saponins: properties, applications and processing: Critical reviews. Food Science and Nutrition, 47(3): 231-258. DOI: 10.1080/10408390600698197
Hassan SM, Al Aqil AA & Attimarad M. 2013. Determination of crude saponin and total flavonoids content in guar meal. Advancement in Medicinal Plant Research, 1(2): 24-28.
Iser M, Martinez Y, Ni H, Jiang H, Navarro MV, Wu X, Al-Dhabi NA & Fang J. 2016. The effects of Agave fourcroydes powder as a dietary supplement on growth performance, gut morphology, concentration of IgG, and haematology parameters in broiler rabbits. BioMed Research International, DOI: 10.1155/2016/3414319
Khan S, Sultan A, Chand N, Qureshi MS, Tanweer AJ, Akhtar A, Tauqeer AM & Khan H. 2014. Garlic (Allium sativum) modulated serum cholesterol level, improved immune status and carcass yield of broilers. Pakistan Journal of Science, 66(2): 171.
Khaskheli AA, Khaskheli MI, Khaskheli AJ & Ali A. 2020. Dietary influence of Yucca schidigera on broilers and layers: A Review. International Journal of Veterinary Science. 9(3): 458-461. DOI: 10.37422/IJVS/20.054
Kpomasse CC, Oke OE, Houndonougbo FM & Tona K. 2021. Broiler production challenges in the tropics: A review. Veterinary Medicine and Science, 7(3): 831-842. DOI: 10.1002/vms3.435
Liu N, Lin L, Wang J, Zhang F & Wang JP. 2018. Dietary cysteamine hydrochloride protects against oxidation, inflammation, and mucosal barrier disruption of broiler chickens challenged with Clostridium perfringens. Journal of Animal Science, 96(10): 4339-4347.
Luo Q, Cui H, Peng X, Fang J, Zuo Z, Deng J, Liu J & Deng Y. 2013. Intestinal IgA+ cell numbers as well as IgA, IgG, and IgM contents correlate with mucosal humoral immunity of broilers during supplementation with high fluorine in the diets. Biological Trace Element Research, 154(1): 62-72. DOI: 10.1007/s12011-013-9713-9
Mack LA, Felver-Gant JN, Dennis RL & Cheng HW. 2013. Genetic variations alter production and behavioral responses following heat stress in 2 strains of laying hens. Poultry Science, 92(2): 285-294. DOI: 10.3382/ps.2012-02589
Muniandy KV, Chung ELT, Jaapar MS, Hamdan MHM, Salleh A & Jesse FFA. 2020. Filling the gap of Brachiaria decumbens (signal grass) research on clinico-pathology and haemato-biochemistry in small ruminants: A review. Toxicon, 174: 26-31. DOI: 10.1016/j.toxicon.2019.12.158
Naidoo V, McGaw LJ, Bisschop SPR, Duncan N & Eloff JN. 2008. The value of plant extracts with antioxidant activity in attenuating coccidiosis in broiler chickens. Veterinary Parasitology, 153(3-4): 214-219. DOI: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2008.02.013
O'Callaghan NJ & Fenech M. 2011. A quantitative PCR method for measuring absolute telomere length. Biological Procedures Online, 13(1): 1-10.
Paul WE. 2015. History of Interleukin-4. Cytokine, 75(1): 3-7. DOI: 10.1016/j.cyto.2015.01.038
Ramadan O, Hagag SES, El-Gharib MS & Zahran F. 2021. The protective role of turmeric (curcuma longa) on broilers exposed to chronic heat stress. Alfarama Journal of Basic & Applied Sciences, 2(2): 194-204. DOI: 10.21608/AJBAS.2021.52402.1041
Ranjbar Z, Shariatmadari F & Karimi TMA. 2014. Effect of different levels of yucca extract and antibiotic on growth performance, immune response and blood factors of broiler chickens. Iranian Journal of Medical and Aromatic Plant, 30(5): 675–681. DOI: 10.22092/IJMAPR.2014.10705
Sahoo SP, Kaur D, Sethi APS, Sharma A, & Chandra M. 2015. Evaluation of Yucca schidigera extract as feed additive on performance of broiler chicks in winter season. Veterinary World, 8(4): 556. DOI:  10.14202/vetworld.2015.556-560
Sarmah AK, Meyer MT & Boxall AB. 2006. A global perspective on the use, sales, exposure pathways, occurrence, fate and effects of veterinary antibiotics (VAs) in the environment. Chemosphere, 65(5): 725-759. DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2006.03.026
Scanes CG. 2016. Biology of stress in poultry with emphasis on glucocorticoids and the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio. Poultry Science, 95(9): 2208-2215. DOI: 10.3382/ps/pew137
Sohn SH & Subramani VK. 2014. Dynamics of telomere length in the chicken. World's Poultry Science Journal, 70(4): 721-736. DOI: 10.1017/S0043933914000804
Sohn SH, Cho EJ, Jang IS & Moon YS. 2013. The effects of dietary supplementation of vitamin C and E on the growth performance and the stress response in broiler chickens. Korean Journal of Poultry Science, 40(1): 31-40.
Sohn SH, Jang IS, Moon YS, Kim YJ, Lee SH, Ko YH, Kang SY & Kang HK. 2008. Effect of dietary siberian ginseng and eucommia on broiler performance, serum biochemical profiles and telomere length. Korean Journal of Poultry Science, 35(3): 283-290. DOI: 10.5536/KJPS.2008.35.3.283
Su JL, Shi BL, Zhang PF, Sun DS, Li TY & Yan SM. 2016. Effects of yucca extract on feed efficiency, immune and antioxidative functions in broilers. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology, 59. DOI: 10.1590/1678-4324-2016150035.
Wang Y, Fang MY, Jiang F & Peng HJ. 2004. Effects of arsenic trioxide, ginseng saponin and beta-elemene on telomere-telomerase system in K562 cell line. Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi, 12(3):  315-320.