Effect of Adding Grape Pomace into the Diet, Grape Pomace Extract and Vitamin E-Selenium into the Drinking Water on Growth Performance, Internal Organs' Weight, Cecum Bacterial Population and Prececal Nutrient Digestibility in British United Turkeys

Document Type : Original Paper


Department of Animal Science, School of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Bajgah, Shiraz, Iran


This study aimed to use grape pomace and pomace extract to feed British United Turkey Big 6 (B.U.T.6) and compare its effect with vitamin E-selenium on growth performance, internal organs, and bacterial population of the cecum, and prececal nutrient digestibility. For this purpose, 80 hatched day-old B.U.T.6 were placed in a completely randomized design, including four treatments, four replicates for each treatment, and five birds in each replicate. The turkeys underwent experimental treatments from 31 to 127 days, including control, 3% dietary grape pomace, 150 mL/L aqueous extract of grape pomace, and 0.5 mL/L vitamin E-selenium in the drinking water. The turkeys treated with grape pomace had the highest daily weight gain and final body weight. Grape pomace extract treatment had a negative effect on daily feed intake. Experimental treatments throughout the course did not have a significant effect on the feed conversion ratio. The bacterial population of Escherichia coli in the cecum was lower in the vitamin E-selenium treatment than in other treatments. The population of Lactobacillus bacteria in all experimental treatments was higher than in the control treatment and the highest in the treatment of grape pomace extract. Digestion of dry matter, crude fat, and protein in turkeys treated with grape pomace extract and control were more than in the other treatments. The digestibility of crude fat in turkeys treated with grape pomace was significantly lower than in other treatments. The use of grape pomace in turkey diets is recommended because it increases the overall daily weight gain, final body weight, and the number of beneficial bacteria. In turkeys treated with grape pomace extract, daily weight gain and final body weight can be considered helpful in reducing feed costs.


Adams LS, Seeram NP, Aggarwal BB, Takada Y, Sand D & Heber D. 2006. Pomegranate juice, total pomegranate ellagitannins, and punicalagin suppress inflammatory cell signaling in colon cancer cells. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 54: 980-985. DOI: 10.1021/jf052005r
Agricultural Statistics of Iran. 2016. Tehran, Iran: Jihad Keshavarzi Publications, Information, and Communication Technology Center.
Alipour D & Rouzbehan Y. 2007. Effects of ensiling grape pomace and addition of polyethylene glycol on in vitro gas production and microbial biomass yield. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 137: 138-149. DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2006.09.020
Bakhshizadeh S, Taghizadeh A, Janmohammadi H & Alijani P. 2012. Determination of chemical composition and degradability properties of grape pulp and pomegranate seeds using nylon bag methods and gas production. Animal Science Research, 3: 1-11.
Baydar NG, Sagdic O, Ozkan G & Cetin S. 2006. Determination of antibacterial effects and total phenolic contents of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seed extracts. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 41: 799-804. DOI:  10.1111/j.1365-2621.2005.01095.x
Bjelakovic G, Nikolova D, Simonetti R & Gluud C. 2004. Antioxidant supplements for prevention of gastrointestinal cancers: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The Lancet, 364: 1219-1228. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004183.pub3
Brenes A, Viveros A, Goni I, Centeno C, Saura-Calixto F & Arija I. 2010. Effect of grape seed extract on growth performance, protein and polyphenol digestibility, and antioxidant activity in chickens. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research, 8(2): 326-333. DOI: 10.5424/sjar/2010082-1199
Brenes A, Viveros A, Goni I, Centeno C,
Sáyago-Ayerdy S, Arija I & Saura-Calixto F. 2008. Effect of grape pomace concentrate and vitamin E on digestibility of polyphenols and antioxidant activity in chickens. Poultry Science, 87: 307-316. DOI: 10.3382/ps.2007-00297
Chamorro S, Viveros A, Centeno C, Romero C, Arija I & Brenes A. 2013. Effects of dietary grape seed extract on growth performance, amino acid digestibility and plasma lipids and mineral content in broiler chicks. Animal, 7: 555-561. DOI: 10.1017/s1751731112001851
Choi IH, Park WY & Kim YJ. 2010. Effects of dietary garlic powder and α-tocopherol supplementation on performance, serum cholesterol levels, and meat quality of chicken. Poultry Science 89, 1724-1731. DOI: 10.3382/ps.2009-00052
Coon CN, Leske KL, Akavanichan O & Cheng TK. 1990. Effect of oligosaccharide-free soybean meal on true metabolizable energy and fiber digestion in adult roosters. Poultry Science, 69: 787-793. DOI: 10.3382/ps.0690787
De Pina C & Hogg T. 1999. Microbial and chemical changes during the spontaneous ensilage of grape pomace. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 86: 777-784. DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2672.1999.00726.x
Dolara P, Luceri C, De Filippo C & Femia AP, Giovannelli L, Caderni G & Cresci A. 2005. Red wine polyphenols influence carcinogenesis, intestinal microflora, oxidative damage and gene expression profiles of colonic mucosa in F344 rats. Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis, 591: 237-246. DOI: 10.1016/j.mrfmmm.2005.04.022
FAO. 2015. Statistics Division, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/faostat
Fellenberg MA & Speisky H. 2006. Antioxidants: their effects on broiler oxidative stress and its meat oxidative stability. World's Poultry Science Journal, 62: 53-70. DOI: 10.1079/WPS200584
García-Ruiz A, Bartolomé B, Martínez-Rodríguez AJ, Pueyo E, Martín-Álvarez, PJ & Moreno-Arribas MV. 2008. Potential of phenolic compounds for controlling lactic acid bacteria growth in wine. Food Control, 19: 835-841. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodcont.2007.08.018
Goni I, Brenes A, Centeno C, Viveros A, Saura-Calixto F, Rebole A, Arija I & Estevez R. 2007. Effect of dietary grape pomace and vitamin E on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and susceptibility to meat lipid oxidation in chickens. Poultry Science, 86: 508-516. DOI: 10.1093/ps/86.3.508
 Grasser L, Fadel J, Garnett I & DePeters E. 1995. Quantity and economic importance of nine selected by-products used in California dairy rations. Journal of Dairy Science, 78: 962-971. DOI: 10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(95)76711-X
Haghighi Khoshkho P, Akbari Azad G & Masoudian A. 2010. Comparison of breeding performance of BUT Big 6 broiler turkey in Iran with the breed standard. Veterinary Medicine of Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch, 4: 737-746.
Hervert-Hernández D, Pintado C, Rotger R & Goñi I. 2009. Stimulatory role of grape pomace polyphenols on Lactobacillus acidophilus growth. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 136: 119-122. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2009.09.016
Hedayati M, Manafi M, Almasi S & Karimi RA. 2017. The effect of methanolic extract, aqueous extract, and ruby grape pomace (V. vinifera) extract compared with commercial antioxidant (BHT) on performance indices, safety, and antioxidant of blood serum and intestinal bacterial population in broilers. Iranian Animal Sciences, 48:  439-451.
Hogan S, Zhang L, Li J, Sun S, Canning C & Zhou K. 2010. Antioxidant rich grape pomace extract suppresses postprandial hyperglycemia in diabetic mice by specifically inhibiting alpha-glucosidase. Nutrition and Metabolism, 7: 71-80. DOI: 10.1186/1743-7075-7-71
Ismail IB, Al-Busadah KA & El-Bahr SM. 2013. Oxidative stress biomarkers and biochemical profile in broilers chicken fed zinc bacitracin and ascorbic acid under hot climate. American Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3: 202-214. DOI: 10.3923/ajbmb.2013.202.214
Jee MH. 1995. Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International (16th edn); Official and Standardized Methods of Analysis (3rd edn). Trends in Food Science and Technology, 6: 382-383.
Leeson S & Atteh JO. 1995. Utilization of fats and fatty acids by turkey poults. Poultry Science, 74: 2003-2010. DOI: 10.3382/ps.0742003
López A, Rico M, Rivero A & de Tangil MS. 2011. The effects of solvents on the phenolic contents and antioxidant activity of Stypocaulon scoparium algae extracts. Food Chemistry, 125: 1104-1109. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.09.101
Martel F, Monteiro R & Calhau C. 2010. Effect of polyphenols on the intestinal and placental transport of some bioactive compounds. Nutrition Research Reviews, 23: 47-64. DOI: 10.1017/S0954422410000053
Martins S, Mussatto SI, Martínez-Avila G, Montañez-Saenz J, Aguilar CN & Teixeira JA. 2011. Bioactive phenolic compounds: production and extraction by solid-state fermentation. A review. Biotechnology Advances, 29: 365-373. DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2011.01.008
Min Á, Nam KC, Cordray J & Ahn DU. 2008. Endogenous factors affecting oxidative stability of beef loin, pork loin, and chicken breast and thigh meats. Journal of Food Science, 73: 439-446. DOI: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2008.00805.x
Ozkan G, Sagdiç O, Göktürk BN & Kurumahmutoglu Z. 2004. Antibacterial activities and total phenolic contents of grape pomace extracts. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 84: 1807-1811. DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.1901
Papadopoulou C, Soulti K & Roussis IG. 2005. Potential antimicrobial activity of red and white wine phenolic extracts against strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. Food Technology and Biotechnology, 43: 41-46. https://hrcak.srce.hr/110416
Pascariu S, Pop I, Simeanu D, Pavel G & Solcan C. 2017. Effects of wine by-products on growth performance, complete blood count and total antioxidant status in broilers. Revista Brasileira de Ciência Avícola, 19: 191-202. DOI: 10.1590/1806-9061-2016-0305
Quan TH, Benjakul S, Sae-leaw T, Balange AK & Maqsood S. 2019. Protein–polyphenol conjugates: Antioxidant property, functionalities and their applications. Trends in Food Science and Technology, 91: 507-517. DOI: 10.1016/j.tifs.2019.07.049
Sadeghi K & Novbakht A. 2015. Effect of lemon, grape, apple pulp on yield, carcass traits, gastrointestinal characteristics, intestinal morphology, and broilers' safety traits. Iranian Journal of Animal Sciences Research. 4: 466-477.
SAS (Statistical Analysis System). 2013. SAS/STAT 9.4. User's Guide. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC.
Scott PM & Kennedy BP. 1976. Analysis of blue cheese for roquefortine and other alkaloids from Penicillium roqueforti. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 24: 865-868. DOI: 10.1021/jf60206a028
Smet K, Raes K, Huyghebaert G, Haak L, Arnouts S & De Smet S. 2008. Lipid and protein oxidation of broiler meat as influenced by dietary natural antioxidant supplementation. Poultry Science, 87: 1682-1688. DOI: 10.3382/ps.2007-00384
Tangolar SG, Özogul F, Tangolar S & Yağmur C. 2011. Tocopherol content in fifteen grape varieties obtained using a rapid HPLC method. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 24: 481-486. DOI: 10.1016/j.jfca.2010.08.003
Tzounis X, Vulevic J, Kuhnle GG, George T, Leonczak J, Gibson GR, ... & Spencer JP. 2008. Flavanol monomer-induced changes to the human faecal microflora. British Journal of Nutrition, 99: 782-792. DOI: 10.1017/S0007114507853384
Van der Most PJ, de Jong B, Parmentier HK & Verhulst S. 2011. Trade-off between growth and immune function: a meta-analysis of selection experiments. Functional Ecology, 25: 74-80. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2435.2010.01800.x
Vaquero MR, Alberto MR & de Nadra MM. 2007. Antibacterial effect of phenolic compounds from different wines. Food Control, 18: 93-101. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodcont.2005.08.010
Viveros A, Chamorro S, Pizarro M, Arija I, Centeno C & Brenes A. 2011. Effects of dietary polyphenol-rich grape products on intestinal microflora and gut morphology in broiler chicks. Poultry Science, 90: 566-578. DOI: 10.3382/ps.2010-00889
Wadhwa M & Bakshi MPS. 2013. Utilization of fruit and vegetable wastes as livestock feed and as substrates for generation of other value-added products. Rap Publication, 4: 1-67.
Wang L, Piao XL, Kim SW, Piao XS, Shen YB & Lee HS. 2008. Effects of Forsythia suspensa extract on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and antioxidant activities in broiler chickens under high ambient temperature. Poultry Science, 87: 1287-1294. DOI: 10.3382/ps.2008-00023
Wen J, Morrissey PA, Buckley DJ & Sheehy PJA. 1997. Supranutritional vitamin E supplementation in pigs: Influence on subcellular deposition of α-tocopherol and on oxidative stability by conventional and derivative spectrophotometry. Meat Science, 47: 301-310. DOI: 10.1016/s0309-1740(97)00062-4
Wendt Thiex NJ. 2000. Animal feed. Official Methods of Analysis, 1:1-54.