Effects of Different Levels of Date Waste Vinegar in Diet and Water on Growth Performance, Gastrointestinal Tract Morphology, Ileal Microflora and Immune Response of Broilers

Document Type : Original Paper


Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.


To investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with industrial vinegar (IV) and waste date vinegar (WDV) on growth performance, intestinal morphology, and immune response of broilers, five hundred Ross 308 chickens were randomly divided into 50 cages in a 42-day breeding period. The experiment consisted of ten treatments with five replications in each treatment including; control 1 (standard feed without  WDV or IV), control 2 (control 1 + 2% water into the feed), 1, 2, and 3% of WDV and 2% industrial vinegar (IV) into the feed and 0.5, 1, and 1.5% of WDV and 1% industrial vinegar (IV) into the water. One chicken from each replicate was slaughtered on days 24 and 42 to investigate gastrointestinal tissue growth as well as intestinal morphology. The results showed that growth performance was not affected by treatments in any period. The height and width of the villus in the treatments containing 1% of WDV into the water and 2% of WDV into the feed increased with time compared to the control treatments. On day 42 of the experiment, the crypt depth was also higher in the treatment containing 1% of WDV into the feed compared to the other treatments. The ileal coliforms were also affected by WDV addition into the feed at 42 days of age compared to other groups (P < 0.05). The highest amount of IgM and IgG were found to levels of 2% and 1% of WDV into the diet, respectively (P < 0.05). However, SRBC, ND titter was not affected by treatments. Also, no difference was found between industrial vinegar in water or feed in most of the studied parameters. The results of this study showed that supplementation of the diet with WDV had a positive effect on intestinal morphology and immune system of broilers compared to industrial vinegar.


Adil S, Banday T, Ahmad Bhat G, Saleem Mir M & Rehman M. 2010. Effect of dietary supplementation of organic acids on performance, intestinal histomorphology, and serum biochemistry of broiler chicken. Veterinary Medicine International, Article ID 479485, 7 pages. DOI:10.4061/2010/479485
Adil S, Banday T, Ahmad Bhat G, Mir Salahuddin M, Raquib M & Shanaz S. 2011. Response of broiler chicken to dietary supplementation of organic acids. Journal of Central European Agriculture, 12: 498-508. DOI: 10.5513/JCEA01/12.3.947
Awad WA, Bohm J, Razzazi-Fazeli E, Ghareeb K & Zentek J. 2006. Effect of addition of a probiotic microorganism to broiler diets contaminated with deoxynivalenol on performance and histological alterations of intestinal villi of broiler chickens. Poultry Science, 85: 974 – 979.  DOI: 10.1093/ps/85.6.974
Cheema MA, Qureshi MA & Havenstein GB. 2003. A comparison of the immune response of a 2001 commercial broiler with a 1957 randombred broiler strain when fed representative 1957 and 2001 broiler diets. Poultry Science, 82: 1519-1529.  DOI: 10.1093/ps/82.10.1519
Denli M, Okan F & Celik K. 2003. Effect of dietary probiotic, organic acid and antibiotic supplementation to diets on broiler performance and carcass yield. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 2: 89–91. DOI: 10.3923/pjn.2003.89.91
Fuller R. 1989. A review: Probiotics in man and animals. Journal of Applied Bacteriology, 66: 365- 378.  DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2672.1989.tb05105.x
Ghafari H, Kheiri F & Faghani M. 2017. Effect of using protexin probiotic and ephedra funereal powder supplementation on performance and some carcass traits on broiler chicks. Applied Science Reports, 17: 41-45.  DOI: 10.2139/ssrn.3200911
Ghazalah AA, Atta AM, Elkloub K, Moustafa MEL & Riry FH. 2011. Effect of dietary supplementation of organic acids on performance, nutrient digestibility and health of broiler chicks.  International Journal of Poultry Science, 10: 176-184.  DOI: 10.3923/ijps.2011.176.184
Guban J, Korver DR, Allison GE & Tannock GW. 2006. Relationship of dietary antimicrobial drug administration with broiler performance, decreased population levels of Lactobacillus salivarius, and reduced bile salt deconjugation in the ileum of broiler chickens. Poultry Science, 85: 2186-2194.  DOI: 10.1093/ps/85.12.2186
Gunal M, Yayli G, Kaya O, Karahan N & Sulak O. 2006. The effects of antibiotic growth promoter, probiotic or organic acid supplementation on performance, intestinal microflora and tissue of broilers. International Journal of Poultry Science, 5: 149–155.  DOI: 10.3923/ijps.2006.149.155
Hassan HMA, Mohamed MA, Youssef AW & Hassan ER. 2010. Effect of using organic acids to substitute antibiotic growth promoters on performance and intestinal microflora of broilers. Asian-Australian Journal of Animal Science, 23: 1348 – 1353.  DOI: 10.5713/ajas.2010.10085
Huff GR, Huff WE, Rath NC, Santos FS, Farnell MB & Donoghue AM. 2007. Influence of hen age on the response of turkey poults to cold stress, Escherichia coli challenge, and treatment with an east extract antibiotic alternative. Journal of Poultry Science. 86: 636-642.  DOI: 10.1093/ps/86.4.636
Iji PA, Saki AA & Tivey DR. 2001. Intestinal development and body growth of broiler chicks on diets supplemented with non-starch polysaccharides. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 89: 175 – 188. DOI: 10.1016/s0377-8401(00)00223-6
Jin LZ, Ho YW, Abdullah N & Jalaludin S. 1997. Probiotics in poultry: modes of action. World’s Poultry Science Journal, 53: 351–368.  DOI: 10.1079/WPS19970028
Kabir SML, Rahman MM, Rahman MB & Ahmed SU. 2004. The dynamics of probiotics on growth performance and immune response in broilers. International Journal of Poultry Science, 3: 361-364. DOI: 10.3923/ijps.2004.361.364
Katoch S, Thakur S & Rajput R. 2017. Effect of probiotic supplementation in broiler birds offered feed formulated with lower protein densities. International Journal of Livestock Research, 7: 90-102.  DOI: 10.5455/ijlr.20170205013927
Kermanshahi H, Heravi RM, Attar A, Abbasi Pour AR, Bayat E, Hossein Zadeh M, Daneshmand A & Ibrahim SA. 2017. Effects of acidified yeast and whey powder on performance, organ weights, intestinal microflora, and gut morphology of male broilers, Brazilian Journal of Poultry Science, 19: 309-316.  DOI: 10.1590/1806-9061-2016-0351
Khan SH & Iqbal J. 2016. Recent advances in the role of organic acids in poultry nutrition. Journal of Applied Animal Research, 44: 359-369.  DOI: 10.1080/09712119.2015.1079527
Khattak F, Ronchi A, Castelli P & Sparks N. 2014. Effects of natural blend of essential oil on growth performance, blood biochemistry, cecal morphology, and carcass quality of broiler chickens. Poultry Science. 93: 132–137.  DOI: 10.3382/ps.2013-03387
La Ragione RM & Woodward MJ. 2003. Competitive exclusion by Bacillus subtilis spores of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis and Clostridium perfringensin in young chickens. Veterinary Microbiology, 94: 245–256.  DOI: 10.1016/s0378-1135(03)00077-4
Lawal HO, Adewuyi GO, Fawehinmi AB, Adeogun A & Etatuvie SO. 2012. Bioassay of herbal mosquito repellent formulated from the essential oil of plants. Journal of Natural Products, 5: 109-115.
Mahdavi R & Torki M. 2009. Study on usage period of dietary protected butyric acid on performance, carcass characteristics, serum metabolite level and humoral immune response of broiler chickens. Journal of Animal Veterinary Advances, 8: 1702-1709. DOI: javaa.2009.1702.1709
Mohiti-Asli M & Ghanaatparast-Rashti M. 2017. Comparing the effects of a combined phytogenic feed additive with an individual essential oil of oregano on intestinal morphology and microflora in broilers. Journal of Applied Animal Research, 46: 184-189.  DOI: 10.1080/09712119.2017.1284074
Mohamed MA, El-Daly EF, El-Azeem NAA, Youssef AW & Hassan H. 2014. Growth performance and histological changes in ileum and immune related organs of broilers fed organic acids or antibiotic growth promoter. International Journal of Poultry Science, 13: 602-610.  DOI: 10.3923/ijps. 2014.602.610
Montagne L, Pluske JR & Hampson DJ. 2003. A review of interactions between dietary fiber and the intestinal mucosa, and their consequences on digestive health in young non-ruminant animals. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 108: 95–117.  DOI: 10.1016/S0377-8401(03)00163-9
Ndelekwute EK, Afolabi KD, Uzegbu HO & Essien EB. 2015. Effect of dietary formic acid as replacement of streptomycin on growth and nutrient digestibility in broilers. Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science, 44: 69-74.   DOI: 10.3329/bjas.v44i1.23146
Owens B, Tucker L, Collins MA & McCracken KJ. 2008. Effects of different feed additives alone or in combination on broiler performance, gut microflora and ileal histology. British Poultry Science, 49: 202-212. DOI: 10.1080/00071660802004890
Paul SK, Halder G, Mondal MK & Samanta G. 2007. Effect of organic acid salt on the performance and gut health of broiler chicken. Poultry Science, 44: 389-395. DOI: 10.2141/jpsa.44.389
Pelicano ERL, Souza PA, Souza HBA, Figueiredo DF, Boiago MM, Carvalho SR & Bordon VF. 2005. Intestinal mucosa development in broiler chickens fed natural growth promoters. Brazilian Journal of Poultry Science, 7: 221-229.  DOI: 10.1590/S1516-635X2005000400005
Pirgozliev V, Bravo D, Mirza MW & Rose SP. 2015. Growth performance and endogenous losses of broilers fed wheat-based diets with and without essential oils and xylanase supplementation. Poultry Science, 94: 1227-1232.  DOI: 10.3382/ps/peu017
Placha I, Takacova J, Ryzner M, Cobanova K, Laukova A, Strompfova V, Venglovska K & Faix S. 2014. Effect of thyme essential oil and selenium on intestine integrity and antioxidant status of broilers. British Poultry Science, 55: 105-114.  DOI: 10.1080/00071668.2013.873772
Pourakbari M, Seidavi A, Asadpour L & Martínez A. 2016. Probiotic level effects on growth performance, carcass traits, blood parameters, cecalmicrobiota, and immune response of broilers. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências, 88: 1011-1021.  DOI: 10.1590/0001-3765201620150071
Rahbar MG, Farhoomand P & Kamyab A. 2011. The effect of different concentrations of Peganumharmala seeds with or without a yeast cell wall product on the live performance, intestinal histomorphology, and weights of visceral organs of broiler chickens. Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 20: 454-462.  DOI: 10.3382/japr.2010-00261
Rasschaert G, Michiels J, Tagliabue M, Missotten J, De Smet S & Heyndrickx M. 2016. Effect of organic acids on salmonella shedding and colonization in PIGS on a farm with high Salmonella prevalence. Journal of Feed Protection, 79: 51-58.  DOI: 10.4315/0362-028x.jfp-15-183
Ricke SC. 2003. Perspectives on the use of organic acids and short chain fatty acids as antimicrobials. Poultry Science, 82: 632–639.  DOI: 10.1093/ ps/82.4.632
Roto SM, Rubinelli PM & Ricke SC. 2015. An introduction to the avian gut microbiota and the effects of yeast based prebiotic-type compounds as potential feed additives. Frontiers in Veterinary Science, 2: 1-18.  DOI: 10.3389/fvets.2015.00028
Samanta S, Haldar S & Ghosh TK. 2010. Comparative efficacy of and organic acid blend and bacitracin methylene disalicylate as growth promoters in broiler chickens: Effects on performance, gut histology, and small intestinal milieu. Veterinary Medicine International, 2010: 1-8.  DOI: 10.4061/2010/645150
Sarica Ş, Suiçmez M, Çördük M, Özdemir D & Berberoglu E. 2014. Effects of oregano essential oil supplementation to diets of broiler chicks with delayed feeding after hatching. Morphological development of small intestine segments. Italian Journal of Animal Science. 13: 284–289.  DOI: 10.4081/ijas.2014.3172
Sarker N, Tsudzuki M, Nishibori M & Yamamoto Y. 1999. Direct and correlated response to divergent selection for serum immunoglobulin M and G levels in chickens. Poultry Science, 78: 1-7.  DOI: 10.1093/ps/78.1.1
Seifi S. 2013. An investigation of the effects of using an enzyme-probiotic combination on broilers performance. Iranian Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 7: 299-304.  DOI: 10.22059/ijvm. 2013.36291
Tasharofi S, Yazdanpanah Goharrizi L & Mohammadi F. 2017. Effects of dietary supplementation of waste date’s vinegar on performance and improvement of digestive tract in broiler chicks. Journal of Urmia University, 8: 127 – 132.
Tomar A, Mall M & Rai P. 2013. Pharmacological importance of citrus fruits. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Science Research, 4: 156-160.  DOI: 10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.
Waldroup A, Kanlawato S & Mauromuos-Takos A. 1995. Performance characteristics and microbiological aspects of broilers fed diets supplemented with organic acids. Journal of Feed Protection, 58: 482-489.  DOI: 10.4315/0362-028x-58.5.482
Yang X, Xin H, Yang C & Yang X. 2018. Impact of essential oils and organic acids on the growth performance, digestive functions and immunity of broiler chickens. Journal of Animal Nutrition, 4: 388-393.  DOI: 10.1016/j.aninu.2018.04.005
Yitbarek A, Echeverry H, Brady J, Hernandez-Doria J, Camelo-Jaimes G, Sharif S, Guenter W, House JD & Rodriguez-Lecompte JC. 2012. Innate immune response to yeast-derived carbohydrates in broiler chickens fed organic diets and challenged with Clostridium perfringens. Poultry Science, 91: 1105-1112.  DOI: 10.3382/ps.2011-02109
Youssef IMI, Mostafa AS & Abdel-Wahab MA. 2017. Effects of dietary inclusion of probiotics and organic acids on performance, intestinal microbiology, serum biochemistry and carcass traits of broiler chickens. Journal of World Poultry Research, 7: 57-71. PII: S2322455X1700008-7
Zeng Z, Zhang S, Wang H & Piao X. 2015. Essential oil and aromatic plants as feed additives in non-ruminant nutrition: a review. Journal of Animal Science Biotechnology, 6: 1-10. DOI: 10.1186/s40104-015-0004-5