Growth Performance, Nutrients Digestibility, Immune System, and Blood Parameters in Broiler Chickens Fed on Diets Supplemented with Cumin (Cuminum cyminum) or Black Cumin (Bunium persicum) Seed Powders

Document Type : Original Paper


1 Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran.

2 Department of Clinical Science, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran.

3 Department of Basic Science, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran.


Effects of dietary inclusion of cumin (CUM) and black cumin (BCUM) powders were investigated on the performance, nutrient digestibility, lipid deposition, and immunocompetence of broiler chickens in a rearing period of 42 days. A total number of 240 male ROSS 308 day-old chicks were randomly allocated to six dietary treatments with four replicates. Dietary treatments consisted of a basal diet as control, control + 10 ppm avilamycin, control + 0.25% CUM, control + 0.75% CUM, control + 0.25% BCUM, and control + 0.75% BCUM. Feed intake, body weight gain (BWG), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were recorded weekly. Total tract apparent digestibility (TTAD) of crude protein (CP) and ether extract (EE) were measured on day 21. Sheep red blood cells (SRBC) and cutaneous basophil hypersensitivity (CBH) tests were used to evaluate immune responses. On day 42, two chickens from each replicate were selected, bled, euthanized, and carcass, abdominal fat pad, and internal organs were weighted. CUM and also avilamycin improved BWG during the grower and whole period of the experiment. Also, FCR was improved by CUM (0.75%) as well as avilamycin compared to control. Also, CUM (0.75%) decreased serum total cholesterol and LDL, and increased antiSRBC response compared to control. Supplementing the diet with 0.75% CUM also decreased abdominal fat pad percentage compared to other groups. There was an improvement in TTAD of CP and EE with dietary inclusion of CUM (0.75%) as well as avilamycin, compared to control. However, BCUM did not changed the all measured parameters but increased FCR and decreased (0.75% BCUM) BWG and TTAD of CP compared to control. This study indicated growth-promoting, immunostimulatory, and hypolipidemic effects for cumin as a phytogenic feed additive. Then, it may act as an alternative for in-feed antibiotics in broiler nutrition.


Aami-Azghadi M, Golian A, Kermanshahi H & Sedghi M. 2010. Comparison of dietary supplementation with cumin essential oil and prebiotic fermacto on humoral immune response, blood metabolites and performance of broiler chickens. Global Veterinaria, 4: 380-387.
Agah S, Taleb AM, Moeini R, Gorji N & Nikbakht H. 2013. Cumin extract for symptom control in patients with irritable bowel syndrome: a case series. Middle East Journal of Digestive Diseases, 5: 217-222. DOI: 10.15171/middleeastjdi. v5i4.1258
Alimohamadi K, Taherpour K, Ghasemi HA & Fatahnia F. 2014. Comparative effects of using black seed (Nigella sativa), cumin seed (Cuminum cyminum), probiotic or prebiotic on growth performance, blood haematology and serum biochemistry of broiler chicks. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, 98: 538-546. DOI: 10.1111/jpn.12115
Al-Kassi GAM. 2010. Effect of feeding cumin (Cuminum cyminum) on the performance and some blood traits of broiler chicks. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 9: 72-75. DOI: 10.3923/pjn.2010.72.75
Al-Snafi AE. 2016. Immunological effects of medicinal plants: a review (part 2). Immunology Endocrine and Metabolic Agents in Medicinal Chemistry, 16: 1-22. DOI: 10.2174/ 1871522216666161014155814
AOAC. 2002. Official Methods of Analysis. 17th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC. USA.
Berrama Z, Temim S, Souames S & Ainbaziz H. 2017. Growth performance, carcass and viscera yields, blood constituents and thyroid hormone concentrations of chronic heat stressed broilers fed diets supplemented with cumin seeds (Cuminum cyminum L.). Kafkas Universitesi Veteriner Fakultesi Dergisi, 23: 735-742. DOI: 10.9775/kvfd.2017.17663
Bettaieb I, Bourgou S, Sriti J, Msaada K, Limam F & Marzouk B. 2011. Essential oils and fatty acids composition of Tunisian and Indian cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) seeds: a comparative study. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 91: 2100–2107. DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.4513
Boehm T & Bleul C. 2007. The evolutionary history of lymphoid organs. Nature Immunology, 8: 131–135. DOI: 10.1038/ni1435
Boskabady MH & Moghadas A. 2004. Inhibitory effect of Bunium persicum on histamine (H1) receptors of guinea pig tracheal chains. Phytomedicine, 11: 411-415. DOI: 10.1016/ j.phymed.2003.06.001
Chizzola R, Saeidnejad AH, Azizi M, Oroojalian F & Mardani H. 2014. Bunium persicum: variability in essential oil and antioxidants activity of fruits from different Iranian wild populations. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, 61: 1621-1631. DOI: 10.1007/s10722-014-0158-6
Dibaiee-nia G, Akbari MR, Karimi S. 2017. Effects of supplemental zinc in a wheat-based diet on performance, intestinal viscosity, immune system and lipid peroxidation of 21-day old broiler chickens. Poultry Science Journal, 5: 7-15. DOI: 10.22069/psj.2017.11072.1189
Duncan, DB. 1955. Multiple range and multiple F tests. Biometrics, 11: 1–41. DOI: 10.2307/3001478
Einafshar S, Poorazrang H, Farhoosh R & Seiedi SM. 2012. Antioxidant activity of the essential oil and methanolic extract of cumin seed (Cuminum cyminum). European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 114: 168-174. DOI: 10.1002/ejlt. 201100127
El-Dakhakhny M, Mady NI & Halim MA. 2000. Nigella sativa oil protects against induced hepatotoxicity and improves serum lipid proļ¬le in rats. Arzneimittelforschung, 50: 832–836. DOI: 10.1055/s-0031-1300297
Fenton TW & Fenton M. 1979. An improved procedure for the determination of chromic oxide in feed and feces. Canadian Journal of Animal Science, 59: 631-634.  DOI: 10.4141/cjas79-081
Gachkar L, Yadegari D, Rezaei MB, Taghizadeh M, Astaneh SA & Rasooli I. 2007. Chemical and biological characteristics of Cuminum cyminum and Rosmarinus officinalis essential oils. Food Chemistry, 102: 898–904. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.06.035
Glamoclija N, Sevic K, Baltic B, Boskovic M, Janjic J, Djordjevic V & Markovic R. 2016. Effects of phytobiotics on Cobb broiler production results, meatiness and chemical composition. Meat Technology, 57: 89-94.
Habibi R, Jalilvand GH, Samadi S & Azizpour A. 2016. Effect of different levels of essential oils of wormwood (Artemisia absinthium) and cumin (Cuminum cyminum) on growth performance carcass characteristics and immune system in broiler chicks. Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science, 6: 395-400.
Haghighi HR, Gong J, Gyles CL, Hayes MA, Sanei B, Parvizi P, Gisavi H, Chambers JR & Sharif S. 2005. Modulation of antibody-mediated immune response by probiotics in chickens. Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology, 12: 1387-1392. DOI: 10.1128/CDLI.12.12.1387-1392.2005
Hajlaoui H, Mighri H, Noumi E, Snoussi M, Trabelsi N, Ksouri R & Bakhrouf A. 2010. Chemical composition and biological activities of Tunisian Cuminum cyminum L. essential oil: a high effectiveness against Vibrio spp. strains. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 48: 2186–2192. DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2010.05.044
Hassanzadazar H, Taami B, Aminzare M & Daneshamooz S. 2018. Bunium persicum (Boiss.) B. Fedtsch: An overview on phytochemistry, therapeutic uses and its application in the food industry. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, 8: 150-158. DOI: 10.7324/JAPS.2018.81019
Hertrampf JW. 2001. Alternative antibacterial performance promoters. Poultry International, 40: 50-55.
Jiang B, Liang Y, Sun X, Liu X, Tian W & Ma X. 2015. Potent inhibitory effect of Chinese dietary spices on fatty acid synthase. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 70: 257-262. DOI: 10.1007/s11130-015-0486-5
Johri RK. 2011. Cuminum cyminum and Carum carvi: An update. Pharmacognosy Reviews, 5: 63–72. DOI: 10.4103/0973-7847.79101
Lister SA. 2006. Gut problems: the field experience and what it means to the poultry farmer. In: Perry GC. (Eds). Avian Gut Function in Health and Disease. CABI Publishing. Wallingford. Pages, 350-359.
Lucchesi ME, Chemat F & Samadja J. 2004. An original solvent free microwave extraction of essential oils from spices. Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 19: 134–138. DOI: 10.1002/ffj.1274
Mandegary A, Arab-Nozari M, Ramiar H & Sharififar F. 2012. Anticonvulsant activity of the essential oil and methanolic extract of Bunium persicum (Boiss). B. Fedtsch. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 140: 447-451. DOI: 10.1016/ j.jep.2012.01.024
Miraj S & Kiani S. 2016. Pharmacological activities of Carum carvi L. Der Pharmacia Lettre, 8: 135-138.
Mnif S & Aifa S. 2015. Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) from traditional uses to potential biomedical applications. Chemistry and Biodiversity, 12: 733–742. DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201400305
Muthamma Milan KS, Dholakia H, Tiku PK & Vishveshwaraiah P. 2008. Enhancement of digestive enzymatic activity by cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) and role of spent cumin as a bionutrient. Food Chemistry, 110: 678-683. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.02.062
Nandini T, Ramya Sree D, Janbee S, kiran S & Raveendra G. 2016. Study of immunomodulatory effect of seeds of Brassica nigra and Cuminum cyminum in albino rats. International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, 8: 10-14.
NRC (National Research Council). 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry. 9th Rev. Ed. National Academy Press. Washington, DC. 176 Pages.
Platel K & Srinivasan K. 2000a. Influence of dietary spices and their active principles on pancreatic digestive enzymes in albino rats. Die Nahrung, 44: 42–46. DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1521-3803(20000101) 44:1<42::AID-FOOD42>3.0.CO;2-D
Platel K & Srinivasan K. 2000b. Stimulatory influence of select spices on bile secretion in rats. Nutrition Research, 20: 1493–1503. DOI: 10.1016/S0271-5317(00)80030-5
Pope CR. 1991. Pathology of lymphoid organs with emphasis on immunosuppression. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, 30: 31-44. DOI: 10.1016/0165-2427(91)90006-x
Rafeeq M, Rashid N, Tariq MM, Tareen RB, Shahzad I, Ullah A, Hilal B & Mustafa Z. 2016. Culinary and medicinal herbs as feed additives, effect on performance, serum biochemical parameters and microbial population of broiler chickens. Animal Biology and Animal Husbandry–Bioflux, 8: 21-28.
SAS (Statistical Analysis System). 2002. SAS/STAT® 9.1. User’s Guide. SAS Institute Inc. Cary, North Carolina.
Suganya S, Nandagopal B & Anbarasu A. 2017. Natural inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase-an insilico approach through molecular docking and simulation studies. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry, 118: 52-57. DOI: 10.1002/jcb.25608
Swirski FK, Nahrendorf M, Etzrodt M, Wildgruber M, Cortez-Retamozo V, Panizzi P, Figueiredo JL, Kohler RH, Chudnovskiy A, Waterman P, Aikawa E, Mempel TR, Libby P, Weissleder R & Pittet MJ. 2009. Identification of splenic reservoir monocytes and their deployment to inflammatory sites. Science, 325: 612–616. DOI: 10.1126/science. 1175202
Torki M, Soltani J & Mohammadi H. 2015. Effects of adding ethanol extract of propolis and cumin essential oil to diet on the performance, blood parameters, immune response and carcass traits of broiler chicks. Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science, 5: 911-918.
Windisch W, Schedle K, Plitzner C & Kroismayr A. 2008. Use of phytogenic products as feed additives for swine and poultry. Journal of Animal Science, 86 (Suppl 14): E140-148. DOI: 10.2527/jas.2007-0459