Effects of Enalapril on growth Performance, Ascites Mortality, Antioxidant Status and Blood Parameters in Broiler Chickens under Cold-Induced Ascites

Document Type : Original Paper


Department of Animal Science, College of Agriculture, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran.


Six hundred 1-d-old male broilers (Ross 308) were assigned to four experimental groups; each was composed of 5 floor pen replications of 30 birds including control (no enalapril), 15, 30 and 60 ppm enalapril in the drinking water. From d 21 to 49, all the chicks were exposed to low ambient temperature to induce ascites. Mortalities were inspected to determine the cause of death and diagnose of ascites. At the end of the experiment (wk 7), 2 chickens from each replicate were randomly selected and slaughtered. Body weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio were calculated. Plasma protein, glucose, red blood cell, white blood cell, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, malondialdehyde, the activity of alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, creatine kinase, total antioxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase were also determined. Results showed that enalapril for 30 and 60 ppm, significantly improved feed conversion ratio and enhanced body weight gain when measured at day 49. These levels of enalapril compared to the other groups, significantly reduced malondialdehyde level and glutathione peroxidase activity, but increased total antioxidant capacity and superoxide dismutase activity in plasma. Moreover, enalapril at levels of 30 and 60 ppm, significantly reduced aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and creatine kinase activities in plasma. Mortality due to ascites and right to total ventricular weight ratio were significantly low in groups received enalapril at greater levels (≥30 ppm). Compared to the control, enalapril increased high-density lipoprotein. In conclusion, enalapril could improve growth performance and reduced mortality in broilers.


Arab HA, Jamshidi R, Rassouli A, Shams G, Gand M & Hassanzadeh H. 2006. Generation of hydroxyl radicals during ascites experimentally. British Poultry Science, 47: 216-222. [Link]
Baluchnejadmojarad T, Roghani M & Imani A. 2004. Protective effect of enalapril on vascular reactivity of the rat aorta. Vascular Pharmacology, 40: 301–307. [Link]
Bayorh MA, Ganafa AA, Socci RR, Eatman, Silvestrov N & Abukhalaf IK. 2003. Effect of losartan on oxidative stress-induced hypertension in Sprague-Dawley rats. American Journal of Hypertension, 16: 387–392. [Link]
Benzie IF & Tomlinson B. 1998. Antioxidant power of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in vitro. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 45: 168-9. [Link]
Cabell KS, Ma L & Johnson P. 1997. Effects of antihypertensive drugs on rat tissue antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation levels. Biochemical Pharmacology, 54: 133-141. [Link]
Chandran G, Sirajudeen KNS, Nik Yusoff SN, Swamy M, & Samarendra MS. 2014. Effect of the antihypertensive drug enalapril on oxidative stress markers and antioxidant enzymes in kidney of spontaneously hypertensive rat. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, Volume 2014, Article ID 608512, 10 pages. [Link]
de Cavanagh EMV, Inserra F, Toblli J, Stella I, Fraga CG & Ferder L. 2001. Enalapril Attenuates Oxidative Stress in Diabetic Rats. Hypertension, 38: 1130-1136. [Link]
Kedziora-Kornatowska KZ, Luciak M & Paszkowski J. 2000. Lipid peroxidation and activities of antioxidant enzymes in the diabetic kidney: effect of treatment with angiotensin convertase inhibitors. IUBMB Life, 49: 303–307. [Link]
Franco V. 2012. Right ventricular remodeling in pulmonary hypertension. Heart Failure Clinics, 8: 403–412. [Link]
Geng A, Guo Y & Yuan J. 2004. Effects of dietary L-carnitine and coenzyme Q10 supplementation on performance and ascites mortality of broilers. Archives Animal Nutrition, 58: 473–482. [Link]
Iqbal M, Cawthon D, Beers K, Wideman RF, & Bottje WG. 2002. Antioxidant enzyme activities and mitochondrial fatty acids in pulmonary hypertension syndrome (PHS) in Broilers. Poultry Science, 81: 252–260. [Link]
Julian R J. 1993. Ascites in poultry. Avian Pathology, 22: 419-454. [Link]
Kim JH, Kim H, Kim YH, Chung WS, Suh JK & Kim SJ. 2013. Antioxidant effect of captopril and enalapril on reactive oxygen species-induced endothelial dysfunction in the rabbit abdominal aorta. Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, 46: 14-21. [Link]
Mantle D, Patel VB, Why HJF, Ahmed S, Rahman I, MacNee W, Wassif WS, Richardson PJ, Preedy VR. 2000. Effects of lisinopril and amlodipine on antioxidant status in experimental hypertension. Clinica Chimica Acta, 299: 1–10. [Link]
Mohammed AA. 2010. Effect of acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) in drinking water on productive performance and blood characteristic of layer hens during heat stress. International Journal of Poultry Science, 9: 382-385. [Link]
Rajani J, Karimi Torshizi MA & Rahimi Sh. 2011. Control of ascites mortality and improved performance and meat shelf-life in broilers using feed adjuncts with presumed antioxidant activity. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 170: 239– 245. [Link]
Rezar V, Frankič T, Narat M, Levart A, & Salobir J. 2007. Dose-dependent effects of T-2 toxin on performance, lipid peroxidation, and genotoxicity in broiler chickens. Poultry Science, 86: 1155–1160. [Link]
Ruiz-Feria CA. 2009. Concurrent supplementation of arginine, vitamin E, and vitamin C improve cardiopulmonary performance in broilers chickens. Poultry Science, 88: 526–535. [Link]
SAS (Statistical Analysis System). 2003. SAS/STAT® 9.1. User's Guide. SAS Institute Inc. Cary, North Carolina. [Link]
Wideman RF. 1988. Ascites in poultry. Monsanto Nutrition. Update 6: 1-7.
Wideman RF & Bottje WG. 1993. Current understanding of the ascites syndrome and future research directions. Pages 1-20 in: Nutrition and Technical Symposium Proceedings. Novus International, Inc., St. Louis, MO.
Wiemer G, Linz W, Hatrik S, Schölkens BA, & Malinski T. 1997. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition alters nitric oxide and superoxide release in normotensive and hypertensive rats. Hypertension, 30: 1183–1190. [Link]