Effects of Enzyme Supplementation on Productive Performance and Egg Quality of Laying Hens fed Diets Containing Graded Levels of Whole Date Waste



1 Department of Animal Science, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran.

2 Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Arak University, Arak, Iran.


The objective of present study was to determine the effects of β-mannanase-based enzyme (Hemicell®) on productive performance and egg quality in diets containing graded levels of Whole date waste (WDW) fed to laying hens. A total of 336 Hy-line leghorn hens after production peak were randomly divided into 56 cages. Eight iso-energetic and iso-nitrogenous experimental diets in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement including four levels of WDW (0, 10, 20 and 30%) and 2 concentrations of supplemental β-mannanase (0 or 0.06 %) were prepared. Each dietary treatment was fed to 7 cages (6 birds/cage) from 32 to 38 wk of age. During the experiment, daily egg production, egg weight and feed intake were measured. At the 6th wk, egg quality traits were also recorded. The results showed that there was no interaction between WDW inclusion and enzyme supplementation on performance and egg traits. Dietary supplementation of WDW more than 10% significantly decreased egg production and egg mass compared to no WDW recipient hens (control diet) during the entire experiment (P). Inclusion of 30% WDW to the diet, significantly increased overall feed conversion ratio compared to the control group (P). The treatment with 20 and 30% WDW also resulted in lower eggshell thickness as compared to 10% WDW (P). The dietary inclusion of 10% WDW also increased yolk index as compared to the control and 30% WDW groups (P). Enzyme supplementation had no significant effect on productive performance as well as egg quality characteristics. Based on the results of this experiment, it can be concluded that WDW could be included to laying hens diets up to 10% with no deleterious effects on performance and egg quality characteristics.


Abd El- Ghany AE, Ibrahim SA, El-Ganzory EH & El-Faham AI. 1997. Influence of lysoforte and enzyme preparation on laying hen performance. 2nd Hungarian Egyptian Poultry Conference, Godallo, Hungary. Pages, 79-89.
Abd El-Rahman SA, Khidr RE & Abou El-Naser HM. 1999. Date stone meal as a source of energy in layer diets. Egyptian Poultry Science Journal, 19: 307-323.
Al-Harthi MA, El-Deek AA, Yakout HM & Al-Refaee M. 2009. The nutritive value of date waste meal as a feedstuff for Lohmann Brown pullets and layers. Journal of Poultry Science, 46: 303-312.
Al-saffar AE, Attia YA, Mahmoud MB, Zewell HS & Bovera F. 2012. Productive and reproductive performance and egg quality of laying hens fed diets containing different levels of date pits with enzyme supplementations. Tropical Animal Health Production, 45: 327–334.
AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists). 2000. Official Methods of Analysis. 17th Ed. Virginia, USA.
Broz J & Ward NE. 2007. The role of vitamins and feed enzymes in combating metabolic challenges and disorders. Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 16: 150–159.
Carpenter KJ & Clegg KM. 1956. The metabolizable energy of poultry feeding stuffs in relation to their chemical composition. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 7: 45-51.
Cho JH & Kim IH. 2013. Effects of beta-mannanase supplementation in combination with low and high energy dense diets for growing and finishing broilers. Livestock Science, 154: 137–143.
Choct M. 2006. Enzymes for the feed industry: past, present and future. World’s Poultry Science Journal, 62: 5–15.
El-Deek AA, Al-Harthi M & Yakout HM. 2008. Use of enzymes to supplement diets containing date waste meal for Lohmann White layers. International Journal of Poultry Science, 7: 397-407.
El-Bogdady AH. 1995. Date stone meal as an ingredient in laying Quail feed. Egyptian Poultry Science Journal, 15: 153-167.
El-Full EA, Asker NEA, Ali MMM, Abdel-Wahed HM. & Omar EM. 2000. The use of rice bran in broiler and layer diets with reference to enzyme supplementation. Egyptian Poultry Science Journal, 20: 517-543.
FAO (Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations). 2008. Date palm cultivation. Rome, Italy.
Ghasemi R, Torki M, Ghasemi HA & Zarei M. 2014. Single or combined effects of date pits and olive pulps on productive traits, egg quality, serum lipids and leucocytes profiles of laying hens. Journal of Applied Animal Research, 42: 103-109.
Gracia MI, Lázaro R, Latorre MA, Medel P, Araníbar MJ, Jiménez-Moreno E & Mateos GG. 2009. Influence of enzyme supplementation of diets and cooking–flaking of maize on digestive traits and growth performance of broilers from 1 to 21 days of age. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 150: 303–315.
Hempe JM, Lauxen RC & Savage JE. 1998. Rapid determination of egg weight and specific gravity using a computerized data collection system. Poultry Science, 67: 902–907.
Hussein AS & Alhadrami GA. 2003. Effect of enzyme supplementation and diets containing date pits on growth and feed utilization of broiler chicks. Agricultural and Marine Sciences, 8: 67-71.
Hussein AS, Alhadrami GA & Khalil YH. 1998. The use of dates and date pits in broiler starter and finisher diets. Bioresource Technology, 66: 219-223.
Hy-Line Variety W-36 Commercial Management Guide. 2009. Hy-Line International. West Des Moines, Iowa, USA.
Ishrud O, Zahid M, Zhou H & Pan Y. 2001. A water-soluble galactomannan from the seeds of Phoenix dactylifera L. Carbohydrate Research, 335: 297-301.
Jackson ME, Fodge DW & Hsiao HY. 1999. Effects of β-mannanase in corn-soybean meal diets on laying hen performance. Poultry Science, 78: 1737-1741.
Kamel BS, Diab MF, Ilian MA & Salman AJ. 1980. Nutritional value of whole dates and date pits in broiler rations. Poultry Science, 60: 1005-1011.
Kong C, Lee JH & Adeola O. 2011. Supplementation of β-mannanase to starter and grower diets for broilers. Canadian Journal of Animal Science, 91: 389-397.
Magdel-Din Hussein M, Helmy WA & Salem HM. 1998. Biological activities of some galactomannans and their sulfated derivatives. Phytochemistry, 48: 479-484.
Moghaieb REA, Abdel-Hadi AHA & Ahmed MRA. 2011. Genetic stability among date palm plantlets regenerated from petiole explants. African Journal of Biotechnology, 10: 14311-14318.
 Najib H, Al-Yousef YM & Hmeidan M. 1994. Partial replacement of corn with dates in layer diet. Journal of Applied Animal Research, 6: 91-96.
Perez JF, Gernat AG & Murillo JG. 2000. The effect of different levels of palm kernel meal in layer diets. Poultry Science, 79: 77-79.
Roberts JR. 2004. Factors affecting egg internal quality and egg shell quality in laying hens. The Journal of Poultry Science, 41: 161-177.
SAS (Statistical Analysis System). 2008. SAS/STAT® 9.2. User’s Guide. SAS Institute Inc. Cary, North Carolina.
Sawaya WN, Khalil JK & Safi WJ. 1984. Chemical composition and nutritional quality of date seeds. Journal of Food Science, 49: 617-619.
Sklan D, Smirnov A & Plavnik I. 2003. The effect of dietary fiber on the small intestines and apparent digestion in the turkey. British Poultry Science, 44: 735–740.
Smith F & Montgomery R. 1959. The Chemistry of Plant Gums and Mucilages and Some Related Polysaccharides. 1st Ed. Reinhold Publishing; American Chemical Society Monograph Series edition. New York. 627 Pages.
Soliman MH. 1996. Use of date stone meal in broiler chicken diets. Egyptian Poultry Science Journal, 16: 187-198.
Tabook NM, Kadim IT, Mahgoub O & Al-Marzooqi W. 2006. The effect of date fibre supplemented with an exogenous enzyme on the performance and meat quality of broiler chickens. British Poultry Science, 47: 73-82.
Tahmasbi AM, Mirakzehi MT, Hosseini SJ, Agah MJ & Kazemi Fard M. 2012. The effects of phytase and root hydroalcoholic extract of Withania somnifera on productive performance and bone mineralisation of laying hens in the late phase of production. British Poultry Science, 53: 204-214.
Vandepopuliere JM, Al-Yousef Y & Lyons JJ. 1995. Dates and date pits as ingredients in broiler starting and Coturnix quail breeder diets. Poultry Science, 74: 1134-1142.
Wu G, Bryant MM, Voitle RA & Roland Sr DA. 2005. Effect of β-mannanase in corn-soy diets on commercial leghorns in second-cycle hens. Poultry Science, 84: 894-897.
Yakout HM, Shehatta MM, Omara ME & El-Ganzory EH. 2004. The effect of energy levels on the response of local laying hens to enzyme supplemented diets. Egyptian Poultry Science Journal, 24: 497-501.
Zangiabadi H & Torki M. 2010. The effect of a beta-mannanase-based enzyme on growth performance and humoral immune response of broiler chickens fed diets containing graded levels of whole dates. Tropical Animal Health Production, 42: 1209-1217.
Please cite this article as: Torki M, Zangiabadi H & Ghasemi HA. 2014. Effects of enzyme supplementation on productive performance and egg quality of laying hens fed diets containing graded levels of whole date waste. Poult. Sci. J. 2 (2): 139-151.