Effects of Physical Size of Clinoptilolite on Growth Performance, Serum Biochemical Parameters and Litter Quality of Broiler Chickens in the Growing Phase

Document Type : Original Paper


1 Faculty of Animal Science, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran.

2 Department of Animal Science, Gonbad University, Golestan, Iran.


A total of 448 Ross 308 male broiler chickens were assigned to seven treatments with four replicates, each containing 16 chicks. The birds were reared from d 21 to 42 and effects of physical sizes (ad libitum by a basal commercial broiler diet with 3050 Kcal/Kg ME and 19.06% CP/Kg from 21 to 42 d. The chickens which received clinoptilolite (1.5% with particle size of 0.4-0.8 mm) showed a significant increase in body weight gain compared to the control group birds receiving no  clinoptilolite (P<0.05). Adding clinoptilolite to the diet caused a significant improvement in feed conversion ratio in days 21-28, 28-35, 35-42 and 21-42 (P<0.05). Broilers fed 1.5% clinoptilolite with particle size of 0.4- 0.8 mm had lower feed conversion ratio compared to the other groups. The highest level of blood glucose, total protein and albumin were found in birds receiving 1.5% clinoptilolite with the particle size of 0.4- 0.8 mm, while the lowest level of blood glucose, total protein and albumin were obtained in the control groups (P<0.05). The lowest litter moisture was observed in the groups fed with 3% clinoptilolite with a particle size of 1-2 mm. Therefore, it can be concluded that supplementation of the diet with clinoptilolite has positive effects on performance and litter moisture in broilers.


Alzueta C, Ortiz LT, Rebole A, Rodríguez ML, Centeno C & Trevino J. 2002. Effects of removal of mucilage and enzyme or sepiolite supplement on the nutrient digestibility and metabolyzable energy of a diet containing linseed in broiler chickens. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 97: 169-181.
Amerah AM, Ravindran V, Lentle RG & Thomas DG. 2007. Feed particle size: Implications on the digestion and performance of poultry. World's Poultry Science Journal, 63: 439-455.
Amon MM, Dobeic RW, Sneath VR, Phillips TH & Pain BF. 1997. A farm-scale study on the use of clinoptilolite zeolite and De-odorase for reducing odour and ammonia emissions from broiler hauses. Bioresource Technology, 61: 229-237.
Angulo E, Brufau J & Esteve-Garcia E. 1995. Effect of sepiolite on pellet durability in feeds differing in fat and fibre content. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 53: 233-241.
AOAC (Association of Analytical Communities). 1990. Official methods of analysis. 1st Ed. Washington, DC, USA. 1200 Pages.
APHA (the American Public Health Association). 2005. Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. 21st Ed. Washington, DC, USA. 1496 Pages.
Bernal MP & Lopez-Real JM. 1993. Natural zeolite and sepiolite as ammonium and ammonia adsorbent materials. Bioresource Technology, 43: 27-23.
Demirel R, Yokus B, Demirel D, Ketani A & Baran M. 2011. Effects of dietary zeolite on serum contents and feeding performance in rats. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 13: 1814-9596.
Duncan DB. 1955. Multiple range and multiple F test. Biometrics, 11: 1-42.
Elliot MA & Edwards HM. 1991. Comparison on the effects of synthetic and natural zeolite on laying hen and broiler chicken performance. Poultry Science, 70: 2115-2130.
Evans M, Singh DN, Trappet P & Nagle T. 2005. Investigation into the effect of feeding laying hens complete diets with wheat in whole or ground form and zeolite presented in powdered or grit form, on performance and oocyst output after being challenged with coccidiosis. 17th Austalian Poultry Science Symposium, Sydney, New South Wales. Pages, 187-190.
FCQAO (Federal compost quality Assurance Organisation). 1994. Methods book for analysis of compost.  Stuttgart, Germany. 2955 Pages.
Gowenlock AH, Mcmurray JR & Mclauchlan DM. 1988. Varley,s practical clinical biochemistry. 6th Edn. CAS Publishers and Distributors, New Delhi. Pages, 477-549.
Herzig I, Strakova E & Suchy P. 2008. Long-term application of clinoptilolite via the feed of layers and its impact on the chemical composition of long bones of pelvic limb (femur and tibiotarsus) and eggshell. Veterinary Medicine, 53: 550-554.
Kithome M, Paul JW & Bomke AA. 1999. Reducing nitrogen losses during stimulated composting of poultry manure using absorbents or chemical amendments. Journal of Environmental Quality, 28: 194-201.
Li Y & Owyang C. 1993. Vagal afferent pathway mediates physiological action of cholecystokinin on pancreatic enzyme secretion. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 92: 418-424.
Lotfollahian H, Shariatmadari F, Shiva Azad M & Mirhadi A. 2004. Effect of using two types of natural zeolite in diet on blood biochemical factors, the relative weight of internal organs, and broiler performance. Journal of Construction Research, 64: 18-34.
Martin-Kleiner I, Flegar-Mestric Z, Zadro R, Breljak D & Stanovie S. 2001. The effect of the zeolite clinoptilolite on serum chemistry and hematopoiesis in mice. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 39: 717-727.
McWard GW & Taylor DR. 2000. Acidified clay litter amendment. Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 9: 518-529.
Mumpton FA & Fishman PH. 1977. The application of natural zeolite in animal science and agriculture. Journal of Animal Science, 45: 1188-1203.
Nakaue HS & Koelliker UK. 1981. Studies with clinoptilolite in poultry. Effect of feeding varying levels of clinoptilolite (zeolite) to dwarf single comb white leghorn pullets and ammonia production. Poultry Science, 60: 944-949.
Nir I, Hillel R, Shefet G & Nitsan Z. 1994. Effect of particle size on performance. 2. Grain texture interactions. Poultry Science, 73: 781-791.
NRC (National Research Council). 1994. Nutrient requirements of poultry. 9th Rev. Ed. National academy Press. Washington, DC. 176 Pages.
Olver MD. 1989. Effect of feeding clinoptilolite (zeolite) to three strains of laying hens. British Poultry Science, 30: 115-121.
Olver MD .1997. Effect of feeding clinoptilolite (zeolite) on the performances of three strain of laying hens. British Poultry Science, 38: 220-222.
Ouhida I, Perez JF, Piedrafita J & Gasa J. 2000. The effects of sepiolite in broiler chicken diets of high, medium and low viscosity. Productive performance and nutritive value. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 85: 183-194.
Ozturk E, Erner G & Sarica M. 1998. Influence of natural zeolite on performance of laying hens and egg quality. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry, 22: 623-628.
Papaioannou DS, Kyriakis CS, Alexopoulos C, Tzika ED, Polizopoulou ZS & Kyriakis SC. 2004. A field study on the effect of the dietary use of a clinoptilolite-rich tuff, alone or in combination with certain antimicrobials, on the health status and performance of weaned, growing and finishing pigs. Research in Veterinary Science, 76: 19-29.
Papaioannou D, Katsoulos PD, Panousis N & Karatzias H. 2005. The role of natural and synthetic zeolites as feed additives on the prevention and/or the treatment of certain farm animal diseases: A review. Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, 84: 161-170.
Pappas AC, Zoidis E, Theophilou N, Zervas G & Fegeros K. 2010. Effects of palygorskite on broiler performance, feed technological characteristics and litter quality. Applied Clay Science, 49: 276-280.
Pond WG & Lee J. 1984. Zeo-agriculture: Use of natural zeolites in agriculture and aquaculture. Westview Press Inc, Boulder, Colorado. 167: 129-145.
SAS (Statistical Analysis System). 1999. SAS/STAT® 9.2. User,s Guide. SAS Institute Inc. Cary, NC.
Suchy P, Strakowa E, Vecerek V, Klouda Z & Kracmarova E. 2006. The effect of a clinoptilolite-based feed supplement on the performance of broiler chickens. Czech Journal of Animal Science, 51: 168-173.
Svihus B, Juvik E, Hetlavd H & Krogdahl A. 2004. Causes for improvement in nutritive value of broiler chicken diets with whole wheat instead of ground wheat. British Poultry Science, 45: 55-60.
Tasistro AS, Ritz CW & Kissel DE. 2007. Ammonia emissions from broiler litter: response to bedding materials and acidifiers. British Poultry Science, 48: 399-405.
Tepe Y, Akyurt I, Ciminli C, Mutlu E & Caliskan M. 2004. Protective effect of clinoptilolite on lead toxicity in common carp cyprinus carpio. Fresenius Environmental Bulletin, 13: 639-642.
Utlu N, Celebi S & Yucel O. 2007. The effects of natural zeolite supplementation to diet on serum element concentrations in laying hens. Revue de Medecine Veterinaire, 158: 598-602.
Please cite this article as: Parizadian Kavan B, Shams Shargh M, Hassani S & Mostafalo Y. 2013. Effects of physical size of clinoptilolite on growth performance, serum biochemical parameters and litter quality of broiler chickens in the growing phase. Poult. Sci. J. 1 (2): 93-104..