Effect of Threonine Supplementation on Growth Performance, Metabolizable Energy, Morphological Changes and Immune Response in Broiler Chickens Challenged with Coccidia

Document Type: Original Paper

Authors

Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran

Abstract

This study was performed to investigate the effects of dietary threonine (Thr). level on performance, metabolizable energy, intestinal morphology, and immune system in coccidian–infected broiler chickens. The diets contained: 88%, 100% (Non challenged (NC) and challenged control (PC)), 112%, 124%, and 136% of Thr requirement according to Cobb 500 recommendation and fed during grower (pre challenged) and finisher (post challenged) periods. On d 23 (end of grower period), each bird received 0.5 mL of distilled water or received around 24000 sporulated oocysts. On d 23 and 31, one bird per replicate was slaughtered to measure the performance criteria. Mean dietary apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen (AMEn) and digestible energy were greater in NC birds than the challenged birds fed on 88% or 100% Thr diets. Feed intake and blood parameters were not significantly influenced by increasing levels of Thr in the diet. Compared with unchallenged birds with coccidia (NC), the growth performance, morphological parameters (not crypt depth), and immune responses decreased (P < 0.05) in the birds (PC) that were challenged with coccidia, and oocyte numbers were enhanced. Growth performance, jejunal morphology, and immune responses improved and oocyte count decreased in coccidian- challenged birds fed on the diets with greater levels of Thr (P < 0.05). Feeding the challenged birds with the diet containing greater levels of Thr improved (P < 0.05) their growth performance, morphology, and immune responses and decreased oocyte number. The birds fed on the diet with 124% Thr demonstrated a similar response as the NC birds. Increased diet Thr level linearly increased average daily gain and decreased feed conversion ratio in the grower and the whole experimentation periods. The AMEn and digestibility of crude protein were enhanced linearly Thr level increased in coccidian-challenged birds. It is concluded that diets containing 124% of Thr recommendation led to the greatest efficacy on the intestinal immune
response and normal growth maintenance of the birds contaminated with coccidia.

Keywords


Abbasi MAI, Mahdavi AHI, Samie AHI & Jahanian RI. 2014. Effects of Different Levels of Dietary Crude Protein and Threonine on Performance, Humoral Immune Responses and Intestinal Morphology of Broiler Chicks. Brazilian Journal of Poultry Science, 16: 35-44. DOI: 10.1590/S1516-635X2014000100005 

Ahmad I, Qaisrani SN, Azam F, Pasha TN, Bibi F, Naveed S & Murtaza S. 2019. Interactive effects of threonine levels and protein source on growth performance and carcass traits, gut morphology, ileal digestibility of protein and amino acids, and immunity in broilers.Poultry Science, 0:1–10. DOI: 10.3382/ps/pez488.

Ahmadi H & Golian A. 2010. The integration of broiler chicken threonine responses data into neural network models. Poultry Science, 89: 2535–2541. DOI:  10.3382/ps.2010-00884

AOAC International. 2006. Official Methods of Analysis.17th Ed., Association of Official Analytical. Chemists, Washington, D.C.

Azzam MMM, Zou XT, Dong XY & Xie P. 2011. Effect of supplemental L-threonine on mucin 2 gene expression and intestine mucosal immune and digestive enzymes activities of laying hens in environments with high temperature and humidity. Poultry Science, 90: 2251–2256. DOI: 10.3382/ps.2011-01574

Celi P, Cowieson A J,  Fru-Nji F, Steinert RE & Verlhac V. 2017. Gastrointestinal functionality in animal nutrition and health: New opportunities for sustainable animal production, 234: 88-100. DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.09.012

Celi P, Verlhac V, Perez CE, Schmeisser J & Kluenter AM. 2019. Biomarkers of gastrointestinal functionality in animal nutrition and health. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 250: 9-31. DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2018.07.012

Chand N, Faheem H, Khan RU, Qureshi MS, Alhidary IA & Abudabos AM. 2016. Anticoccidial effect of mananoligosacharide against experimentally induced coccidiosis in broiler. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 23: 14414–14421. DOI:10.1007/s11356-016-6600-x

Chee SH, Iji PA, Choct M, Mikkelsen LL & Kocher A. 2010. Functional interactions of manno-oligosaccharides with dietary threonine in chicken gastrointestinal tract Growth performance and mucin dynamics. British Poultry Science, 51: 658–666. DOI: 10.1080/00071668.2010.517251

Chen YP, Cheng YF, Li XH, Yang WL, Wen C, Zhuang S & Zhou YM. 2016. Effects of threonine supplementation on the growth performance, immunity, oxidative status, intestinal integrity, and barrier function of broilers at the early age. Poultry Science, 6: 405-413. DOI: 10.3382/ps/pew240

Corzo A, Kidd MT, Dozier WA, Pharr GT & Koutsos EA. 2007. Dietary threonine needs for growth and immunity of broilers raised under different litter conditions. The Journal of Applied Poultry Research , 16: 574–582. DOI: 10.3382/japr.2007-00046

Dignass AD. 2001. Mechanisms and Modulation of Intestinal Epithelial Repair. Inflammatory Bowel Disease, 7:68–77. DOI:  10.1097/00054725-200102000-00014

Dilger RN, Sands JS, Ragland D & Adeola O. 2004. Digestibility of nitrogen and amino acids in soybean meal with added soyhulls. Journal of Animal Science, 82:715–724. DOI: 10.2527/2004.823715x 

Faure M, Chone F, Mettraux C, Godin JP, Bechereau F, Vuichoud J, Papet I, Breuille D & Obled C. 2007. Threonine Utilization for Synthesis of Acute Phase Proteins, Intestinal Proteins, and Mucins Is Increased during Sepsis in Rats. Nutrient Requirements and Optimal Nutrition, 137: 1802-7. DOI: 10.1093/jn/137.7.1802

 Faure M1, Mettraux C, Moennoz D, Godin JP, Vuichoud J, Rochat F, Breuille D, Obled C & Corthesy-Theulaz I. 2006. Specific amino acids increase mucin synthesis and microbiota in dextran sulfate sodium-treated rats. Journal of Nutrition, 136: 1558-1564. DOI: 10.1093/jn/136.6.1558.

Gordon J & Manley NR. 2011. Mechanisms of thymus organogenesis and orphogenesis. Development, 138:3865–3878. DOI: 10.1242/dev.059998

Gottardo ET, Prokoski K, Horn D, Viott AD, Santos TC & Fernandes JIM. 2016. Regeneration of the intestinal mucosa in Eimeria and E. Coli challenged broilers supplemented with amino acids. Poultry Science, 95: 1056-65. DOI: 10.3382/ps/pev356

Hafez HM. 2008. Poultry coccidiosis: prevention and control approaches. Arch. Geflugelk. 72: 2–7.

Hajati H, Hassanabadi A, Golian A, Nassiri‐Moghaddam H & Nassiri MR. 2018. The Effect of Grape Seed Extract Supplementation on Performance, Antioxidant Enzyme Activity, and Immune Responses in Broiler Chickens Exposed to Chronic Heat Stress. Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science, 8: 109-117.

Klasing K C. 2007. Nutrition and the immune system. British Poultry Science, 48: 525–537. DOI: 10.1080/00071660701671336

Lammers PJ, Kerr BJ, Honeyman MS, Stalder K, Dozier WA, Weber TE, Kidd MT & Bregendahl MT. 2008. Nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy value of crude glycerol for laying hens. Poultry Science, 87: 104–107. DOI: 10.3382/ps.2007-00255

Mansoori B & Modirsanei M. 2012. Effects of dietary tannic acid and vaccination on the course of coccidiosis in experimentally challenged broiler chicken. Veterinary Parasitology, 187: 119–122. DOI: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2011.12.016

Mohiti-Asli M & Ghanaatparast-Rashti M. 2015. Dietary oregano essential oil alleviates experimentally induced coccidiosis in broilers. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 120: 195–202. DOI: 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2015.03.014

Najafi R, Ahmar R & Tazehkand G. 2017. Effect of different dietary threonine levels on optimal growth performance and intestinal morphology in 1-14 days old Ross 308 broilers. Brazilian Journal of Poultry Science, 19: 59-66. DOI: 10.1590/1806-9061-2016-0327 

Nichols NL & Bertolo RF. 2008. Luminal threonine concentration acutely affects intestinal mucosal protein and mucin synthesis in piglets. Journal of Nutrition, 138: 1298-1303. DOI: 10.1093/jn/138.7.1298

Ospina-Rojas IC, Murakami AE, Oliveira CAL & Guerra AFG. 2013. Supplemental glycine and threonine effects on performance, intestinal mucosa development, and nutrient utilization of growing broiler chickens. Poultry Science, 92: 2724–2731. DOI: 10.3382/ps.2013-03171

Paraskeuas V, Fegeros K, Palamidi I, Hunger C & Mountzouris KC. 2017. Growth performance, nutrient digestibility, antioxidant capacity, blood biochemical biomarkers and cytokines expression in broiler chickens fed different phytogenic levels. Animal Nutrition, 3: 114-120. DOI: 10.1016/j.aninu.2017.01.005

Qaisrani SN, Krimpen MM, Kwakkel RP, Verstegen MW A & Hendriks WH. 2015. Diet structure, butyric acid, and fermentable carbohydrates influence growth performance, gut morphology, and cecal fermentation characteristics in broilers. Poultry Science, 94: 2152–2164. DOI: 10.3382/ps/pev003

Ren M, Liu XT, Wang X, Zhang GJ, Qiao SY & Zeng XF. 2014. Increased levels of standardized ileal digestible threonine attenuate intestinal damage and immune responses in Escherichia coliK88+ challenged weaned piglets. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 195: 67–75. DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2014.05.013

Rezaeipour V & Gazani S. 2014. Effects of feed form and feed particle size with dietary L- threonine supplementation on performance, carcass characteristics and blood biochemical parameters of broiler chickens. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 56: 20. DOI: 10.1186/2055-0391-56-20

Saadatmand N, Toghyani M & Gheisari A. 2019. Effects of dietary fiber and threonine on performance, intestinal morphology and immune responses in broiler chickens. Animal Nutrition, 5: 248-255. DOI: 10.1016/j.aninu.2019.06.001

SAS (Statistical Analysis System). 2008. SAS/STAT® 9.2. User's Guide. SAS Institute Inc. Cary, North Carolina.

Schaart MW, Schierbeek H, van der Schoor SR, Stoll B, Burrin DG, Reeds PJ & Van Goudoever J B. 2005. Threonine utilization is high in the intestine of piglets. Journal of Nutrtion, 135: 765-770. DOI: 10.1093/jn/135.4.765

Star L, Rovers M, Corrent E & Van der Klis J. 2012. Threonine requirement of broiler chickens during subclinical intestinal Clostridiuminfection. Poultry Science, 91: 643-652. DOI:  10.3382/ps.2011-01923

Tanweer AJ, Saddique U, Bailey CA & Khan RU. 2014. Antiparasitic effect of wild rue (Peganum harmala L.) against experimentally induced coccidiosis in broiler chicks. Parasitology Research, 113: 2951–2960. DOI:10.1007/s00436-014-3957-y

Tarantino G, Scalera A & Finelli C. 2013. Liver-spleen axis: intersection between immunity, infections and metabolism. World Journal of Gastroenterology, 19: 3534–3542. DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v19.i23.3534

Vighi G, Marcucci F, Sensi L, Di Cara G & Frati F. 2008. Allergy and the gastrointestinal system. Clinical and Experimental Immunology, 153, 3–6. DOI:  10.1111/j.1365-2249.2008.03713.x

Wang WW, Qiao SY, Li DF. 2009. Amino acids and gut function. Amino Acids, 37:105–110. DOI: 10.1007/s00726-008-0152-4

Williams CH, David DJ & Lismaa O. 1962. The determination of chromic oxide in feces samples by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The Journal of Agricultural Science, 59: 381–385. DOI: 10.1017/S002185960001546X

Wils-Plotz EL & Dilger RN. 2013. Combined dietary effects of supplemental threonine and purified fiber on growth performance and intestinal health of young chicks. Poultry Science, 92: 726–734. DOI: 10.3382/ps.2012-02664

Wu G. 1998. Intestinal mucosal amino acid catabolism. Journal of Nutrtion, 128: 1249-1252. DOI:  10.1093/jn/128.8.1249

Xie M, Zhang L, Wen ZG, Tang J, Huang W & Hou SS. 2014. Threonine requirement of White Pekin ducks from hatch to 21 d of age. British Poultry Science, 55: 553–557. DOI:  10.1080/00071668.2014. 929638

Yim D, Kang SS, Kim DW, Kim SH, Lillehoj HS & Min W. 2011. Protective effects of Aloe vera-based diets in Eimeria maxima-infected broiler chickens. Experimental Parasitology, 127: 322–325. DOI:  10.1016/j.exppara.2010.08.010

Zaghari M, Zaefarian F & Shivazad M. 2011. Standardized ileal digestible threonine requirements and its effects on performance and gut morphology of broiler chicks fed two levels of protein. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, 13: 541–552.