Effects of One Week Feeding Finisher Diets Containing Rolled and Extruded Flaxseed on Performance, Lipid Peroxidation and Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Breast and Thigh Meat of Broiler Chickens

Document Type: Original Paper

Authors

Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran

Abstract

The purpose of this experiment was to investigate the effect of one-week feeding of flaxseeds (rolled/extruded) on performance, n-3 fatty acids and oxidative stability of meat in broiler chickens. Seven pelleted diets (36-42d) were provided in a 3×2 factorial arrangement with three flaxseed levels (5, 10, and 15%) and two processing methods (rolled/extruded) and a zero flaxseed control diet. Before the main trial, a total collection method experiment showed that the replacement of 10 and 15% of rolled/extruded flaxseeds in broiler diets caused a marked reduction in the apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn) as compared to those fed basal or 5% flaxseed replaced diets. In the main trial; weight gain was significantly reduced when flaxseed was supplemented at the level of 15%. Lipid peroxidation in thigh meat of birds fed diets contained zero or 5% flaxseed were lower than those fed diet with 10 or 15% flaxseed. The inclusion of flaxseed in the last week of feeding finisher diet linearly reduced the concentrations of saturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acids, in the thigh and breast meat, respectively, whereas, the n-3 and n-3:n-6 ratio linearly increased in both thigh and breast meat. Processing methods of flaxseed did not affect the bird’s performance and fatty acid profiles in meat. It is concluded that the replacement of diets with 5% flaxseed did not affect the AMEn of diet. Feeding diets containing flaxseed for one week before marketing can reduce saturated FA and increase n-3 and n-3: n-6 ratio in meat, but the adverse effect on performance appeared when diets contained 15% flaxseed.

Keywords


Agarwal ‎R & Chase ShD. 2002. Rapid, fluorimetric–liquid chromatographic determination of malondialdehyde in biological samples. Journal of Chromatography B, 775: 121-126. DOI: 10.1016/S1570-0232(02)00273-8

Ajuyah AO, Ahn DU, Hardin RT & Sim JS. 1993. Dietary antioxidants and storage affect chemical characteristics ofω-3 fatty acid-enriched broiler chicken meats. Journal of Food Science, 61: 43-46. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2621.1993.tb03206.x

Alzueta C, Rodriguez MI, Cutuli MT, Rebole A, Ortiz LT, Centeno C & Trevino J. 2003. Effect of whole and demucilaged linseed in broiler chicken diets on digesta viscosity, nutrient utilization and intestinal microflora. British Poultry Science, 44: 67-74. DOI: 10.1080/0007166031000085337

Anjum FM, Haider MF, Khan MI, Sohaib S & Arshad MS. 2013. Impact of extruded flaxseed meal supplemented diet on growth performance, oxidative stability and quality of broiler meat and meat products. Lipids in Health and Disease, 12: 13-25. DOI: 10.1186/1476-511X-12-13

AOAC. 2000. Official methods of analysis. 17th ed. Washington, DC: Association of Official Analytical Chemists.

Arshami J, Pilevar M & Elahi M. 2010. Effects of long-term feeding flaxseed on growth and carcass parameters, ovarian morphology and egg production of pullets. International Journal of Poultry Science, 9: 82-87. DOI: 10.3923/ijps.2010.82.87

Bhatty RS. 1995. Nutrient composition of whole flaxseed and flaxseed meal, in: Cunnane, S.C. ‎& Thompson, L.U. (Eds) Flaxseed in Human Nutrition, pp. 22–42. ‎

Betti M, Perez TI, Zuidhof MJ & Renema RA. 2009. Omega-3-enriched broiler meat: 3. Fatty acid distribution between triacylglycerol and phospholipids classes. Poultry Science, 88: 1740-1754. DOI: 10.3382/ps.2008-00449.

Botsoglou NA, Fletouris DJ, Papageorgiou GE, Vassilopoulos VN, Mantis AJ & Trakatellis AG. 1994. A rapid, sensitive, and specific thiobarbituric acid method for measuring lipid peroxidation in animal tissues, food, and feedstuff samples. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 42: 1931-1937. DOI: 10.1021/jf00045a019

Bou R, Codony R, Tres A, Decker EA & Guardiola F. 2009. Dietary strategies to improve nutritional value, oxidative stability, and sensory properties of poultry products. Critical reviews in food science and nutrition, 49: 800-822. DOI: 10.1080/10408390902911108

Chatrin P, Berpi C, Le-Bihani E, Quentin M & Baeza E. 2005. Influence of production system (label, standard, certified) on lipid and fatty acid composition of fresh and cured-cooked chicken meat. Archiv für Geflügelkunde, 69: 219-225.

Chotinsky D. 2015. The use of enzymes to improve the nutritive value of poultry feeds. Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science, 21: 429-435.

 Conn EE. 1969. Cyanogenic Glycosides. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 17: ‎‎519-526.‎ DOI: 10.1021/jf60163a014

Connor WE. 2000. Importance of n-3 fatty acids in health and disease. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 71: 171S-175S. DOI: 10.1093/ajcn /71.1.171S.

Delgado-Pando G, Cofrades S, Ruiz-Capillas C, Teresa-Solas M & Jimenez-Colmenero F. 2010. Healthier lipid combination oil-in-water emulsions prepared with various protein systems: an approach for development of functional meat products. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 112: 791-80. DOI: 10.1002/ejlt.200900234

FAO. 2010. Poultry meat and eggs: agribusiness handbook. Director of Investment Centre Division, FAO, Rome, Italy

Fedeniuk RW & Biliaderis CG. 1994. Composition and physicochemical properties of linseed (Linumusitatissimum L.) mucilage. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 42: 240-247. DOI: 10.1021/jf00038a003

Fengler AI & Marquardt RR. 1988. Water-soluble pentosans from rye: II. Effects on rate of dialysis and on the retention of nutrients by the chick. Cereal Chemistry, 65: 298-302.

Folch J, Less M & Stanley GHS. 1957. A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipids from animal tissues. Journal of biological chemistry, 226: 497-509.

Gonzalez-Esquerra R & Leeson S. 2000. Effects of menhaden oil and flaxseed in broiler diets on sensory quality and lipid composition of poultry meat. British Poultry Science, 41: 481-488. DOI: 10.1080/713654967

Grau A, Guardiola F, Grimpa S, Barroeta AC & Codony R. 2001. Oxidative stability of dark chicken meat through frozen storage: Influence of dietary α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid supplementation. Poultry Science, 80:1630-1642. DOI: 10.1093/ps/80.11.1630

Hayat Z, Cherian G, Pasha T N, Khattak FM & Jabbar MA. 2009. Effect of feeding flax and two types of antioxidants on egg production, egg quality and lipid composition of eggs. Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 18: 541-551. DOI: 10.3382/japr.2009-00008

Hill FW & Anderson DL. 1958. Comparison of metabolisable energy and productive ‎energy determinations with growing chicks. Journal of Nutrition, 64: 587-603.‎ DOI: 10.1093/jn/64.4.587

Honikel KO. 1998. Reference methods for the assessment of physical characteristics of meat. Meat Science, 49: 447-457. DOI: 10.1016/S0309-1740(98)00034-5

Hulan HW, Proudfoot PG & Nash DM. 1984. The effects of different fat sources on general performance and carcass fatty acid composition. Poultry Science, 63: 324-332. DOI: 10.3382/ps.0630324

Klosterman HJ. 1974. Vitamin B6 antagonist of natural origin. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 22: 13-16. DOI: 10.1021/jf60191a037

Klosterman HJ, Lamoureux GL & Parsons JL. 1967. Isolation, characterization and synthesis of linatine.  A vitamin B6 antagonist from flaxseed (Linumusitatissimum). Biochemistry, 6: 170-177. DOI: 10.1021/bi00853a028

Lee KH, Olomu JM & Sim JS. 1991. Live performance, carcass yield, protein and energy retention of broiler-chickens fed canola and flax full-fat seeds and the restored mixtures of meal and oil. Canadian Journal of Animal Science, 71: 897-903. DOI: 10.4141/cjas91-105

Luna A, Labaque MC, Zygadlo JA & Marin RH. 2010. Effects of thymol and carvacrol feed supplementation on lipid oxidation in broiler meat. Poultry Science, 89: 366-370. DOI: 10.3382/ps.2009-00130

Madhusudhan KT, Ramesh JP, Ogawua T, Sasaoka K & Singh N. 1986. Detoxification ‎of commercial linseed meal for use in broiler rations. Poultry Science, 65: 164-171. ‎ DOI: 10.3382/ps.0650164

Maddock TD, Bauer ML, Koch K, Anderson VL, Maddock RJ & Lardy GP. 2004. The effect of processing flax in beef feedlot rations on performance, carcass characteristic and trained sensory panel ratings. Proc. 60th Flax Institute. March 17-19, Fargo, N.D. pages, 118-123.

Metcalfe LD, Schmitz AA & Pelka JR. 1966. Rapid Preparation of Fatty Acid Esters from Lipids for Gas Chromatographic Analysis. Analytical chemistry, 38: 514-515. DOI: 10.1021/ac60235a044

Mridula D, Kaur D, Nagra SS, Barnwal P, Gurumayum S & Singh KK. 2015. Growth performance ‎and quality characteristics of flaxseed-fed broiler chicks. Journal of Applied Animal Research, 43: 345-354. ‎DOI: 10.1080/09712119.2014.978773‎

Nguyen CV, Smulikowska S & Mieczkowska A. 2003. Effect of linseed and rapeseed or linseed and rapeseed oil on performance, slaughter yield and fatty acid deposition in edible parts of the carcass in broiler chickens. Journal of Animal and Feed Sciences, 2: 271-288. DOI: 10.22358/jafs/67703/2003

Olomu JM & Baracos VE. 1991. Influence of dietary flaxseed oil on the performance, muscle protein deposition, and fatty acid composition of broiler chicks. Poultry Science, 70: 1403-1411. DOI: 10.3382/ps.0701403

Ortiz LT, Rebolé A, Alzueta C, Rodríguez ML & Treviño J. 2001. Metabolisable ‎energy value and digestibility of fat and fatty acids in linseed determined with growing ‎broiler chickens, British Poultry Science, 42: 57-63.‎ DOI: 10.1080/713655010

Pekel AY, Patterson PH, Hulet RM, Acar N, Cravener TL, Dowler DB & Hunter JM. 2009. Dietary camelina meal versus flaxseed with and without supplemental copper for broiler chickens: live performance and processing yield. Poultry Science, 88: 2392-2398. DOI: 10.3382/ps.2009-00051

Pohja NS & Niinivaara FP. 1957. Die bestimmung der wasserbindung des fleischesmittels der konstantdruckmethode. Fleischwirtschaft. 9: 193-195.

Rahimi S, Kamran Azad S & Karimi Torshizi MA. 2011. Omega-3 enrichment of broiler meat by using two oil seeds. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, 13: 353-365.

Rodriguez ML, Alzueta C, Rebole A, Ortiz LT, Centeno C & Trevino J. 2001. Effect ‎of inclusion level of linseed on the nutrient utilisation of diets for growing broiler chickens. ‎British Poultry Science, 42: 368-375.‎ DOI:10.1080/00071660120055359

Roth-Maier DA, Eder K & Kirchgessner M. 1998. Live performance and fatty acid composition of meat in broiler chickens fed diets with various amount of ground or whole flaxseed. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, 79: 260-268. DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0396.1998.tb00649.x

SAS. 2004. User’s guide: statistics SAS institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA.

Shen Y, Feng D, Oresanya T & Chavez E. 2005. Fatty acid and nitrogen utilization of processed flaxseed by adult chickens. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 85: 1137-1142. DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.2073

Sibbald IR. 1989. Metabolizable energy evaluation of poultry diets. In: Recent development in ‎poultry nutrition. Butter Worth. London, U.K.‎

Wu M, Li D, Wang L, Zhou Y, Brooks MS & Chen XD. 2008. Extrusion detoxification technique on flaxseed by uniform design optimization. Separation and Purification Technology, 61: 51-59. DOI: 10.1016/j.seppur.2007.09.016

Zhaleh S, A. Golian & Zerehdaran S. 2019. Effect of rolled or extruded flaxseeds in finisher diet ‎on pellet quality, performance, and n-3 fatty acids in breast and thigh muscles of broiler ‎chickens. Poultry Science Journal, 7: 63-75. DOI: 10.22069/psj.2019.161 13.1396

Zuidhof MJ, Betti M, Korver DR, Hernandez FIL, Schneider BL, Carney VL & Renema RA. 2009. Omega-3-enriched broiler meat: 1. Optimization of a production system. Poultry Science, 88: 1108-1120. DOI: 10.3382/ps.2008-00171