Effects of Dietary Inclusion of the Encapsulated Thyme and Oregano Essential Oils Mixture and Probiotic on Growth Performance, Immune Response and Intestinal Morphology of Broiler Chickens

Document Type: Original Paper

Authors

1 Department of Animal Science, Shabestar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shabestar, Iran

2 Department of Animal Biotechnology, National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Tehran, Iran

3 Animal Science Research Institute, Agriculture Research Education and Extension Organization, Karaj, Iran

Abstract

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary inclusion of the encapsulated thyme essential oil (TEO), oregano essential oil (OEO) mixture and probiotic on growth performance, immune response and intestinal morphology of broiler chickens. A total of 490 one-day-old Ross 308 broiler chicks were randomly divided into seven treatments consisting of five replicates (n=14). Birds were fed with 1) basal diet (control), and a basal diet containing; 2) 10 mg Avilamicine antibiotic, 3) 200 mg/kg encapsulated TEO+OEO mixture, 4) 200 mg/kg non-capsulated TEO+OEO mixture, 5) Pronigeb® (probiotic), 6) Pronigeb® with 200 mg/kg non-capsulated TEO+OEO mixture and 7) Pronigeb® with 200 mg/kg encapsulated TEO+OEO mixture. Results revealed that birds fed diet containing antibiotic, encapsulated TEO+OEO mixture with and without probiotic had significantly higher body weight gain (BWG) compared with control and non-capsulated TEO+OEO mixture groups on day 42 (P < 0.05). Dietary inclusion of TEO+OEO in capsulated form and also in along to probiotic increased humoral immunity in broiler chickens compared with other groups (P < 0.05). Birds fed the diet supplemented with different types of additives showed significantly higher dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) compared with the control group at 32 days of age (P < 0.05). Dietary inclusion of the encapsulated EOs with and without probiotic both significantly increased villus length and villus width in comparison to other groups (P < 0.05). The highest and lowest ratios were observed for the control group and probiotic+encapsulated TEO+OEO group respectively. These results indicate that feeding birds with diet containing encapsulated EOs alone or together with probiotic could improve BWG, immune responses and intestinal morphology in broiler chickens.

Keywords


Amad AA, Männer K, Wendler KR, Neumann K & Zentek J. 2011. Effects of a phytogenic feed additive on growth performance and ileal nutrient digestibility in broiler chickens. Poultry Science, 90: 2811-2816. DOI: 10.3382/ps.2011-01515

Amresh G, Reddy GD, Rao CV & Singh PN. 2007. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of Cissampelospareira root in rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 110: 526-531. DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2006.10.009

AOAC. 2004. Official methods of analysis. 18th ed. Washington, DC.

Attia YA, Bakhashwain AA & Bertu NK. 2017. Thyme oil (Thyme vulgaris L.) as a natural growth promoter for broiler chickens reared under hot climate. Italian Journal of Animal Science, 16: 275-282. DOI: 10.1080/1828051X.2016.1245594

Aviagen. 2014. Ross 308 Broiler Nutrition specification manual. Midhlotian (UK): Aviagen Ltd.

Awad WA, Ghareeb K, Abdel-Raheem S, & Böhm J. 2009. Effects of dietary inclusion of probiotic and synbiotic on growth performance, organ weights, and intestinal histomorphology of broiler chickens. Poultry Science, 88: 49-56. DOI: 10.3382/ps.2008-00244

Bai K, Huang Q, Zhang J, He J, Zhang L & Wang T. 2016. Supplemental effects of probiotic Bacillus subtilis on growth performance, antioxidant capacity, and meat quality of broiler chickens. Poultry Science, 96: 74-82. DOI: 10.3382/ps/pew246

Bilia AR, Guccione C, Isacchi B, Righeschi C, Firenzuoli F & Bergonzi MC. 2014. Essential oils loaded in nanosystems: a developing strategy for a successful therapeutic approach. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2014: 593-651. DOI: 10.1155/2014/651593

Dorman HJ & Deans SG. 2000. Antimicrobial agents from plants: antibacterial activity of plant volatile oils. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 88: 308-316. DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2672.2000.00969.x

Falaki M, Shams Shargh M, Dastar B & Zrehdaran S. 2010. Effects of different levels of probiotic and prebiotic on performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 9: 2390-2395. DOI: 10.3923/javaa.2010.2390.2395

Gaggìa F, Mattarelli P & Biavati B. 2010. Probiotics and prebiotics in animal feeding for safe food production. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 14: S15-28. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2010.02.031

Galal AA, El-Araby IE, Hassanin O & El-Said Omar A. 2016. Positive impact of oregano essential oil on growth performance, humoral immune responses and chicken interferon alpha signaling pathway in broilers. Advance Animal Veterinary Science, 4: 57-65. DOI: 10.14737/journal.aavs/2016/4.1.57.65

Gartner LP & Hiatt JL. 2001. Color Textbook of Histology. 2nd ed. W. B. Saunders, Baltimore, MD.

Gross WB & Siegel HS. 1983. Evaluation of the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio as a measure of stress in chickens. Avian Diseases, 1: 972-979. DOI: 10.2307/1590198.

Hashemipour H, Kermanshahi H, Golian A & Veldkamp T. 2013. Effect of thymol and carvacrol feed supplementation on performance, antioxidant enzyme activities, fatty acid composition, digestive enzyme activities, and immune response in broiler chickens. Poultry Science, 92: 2059-2069. DOI: 10.3382/ps.2012-02685

Jahromi MF, Altaher YW, Shokryazdan P, Ebrahimi R, Ebrahimi M, Idrus Z, Tufarelli V & Liang JB. 2016. Dietary supplementation of a mixture of Lactobacillus strains enhances performance of broiler chickens raised under heat stress conditions. International Journal of Biometeorology, 60: 1099-1110. DOI: 10.1007/s00484-015-1103-x

Jamroz D & Kamel C. 2002. Plant extracts enhance broiler performance. In non-ruminant nutrition: Antimicrobial agents and plant extracts on immunity, health and performance. Journal of Animal Science, 80: 41-46.

Kadam AS, Nikam MG, Patodkar VR, Muglikar DM, Lonkar VD, Yadav GB, Maini S, Ravikanth K & Meshram MD. 2009. Influence of herbal early chick nutritional supplement on the growth performance, serum biochemicals and immune response of broiler chicken. International Journal of Poultry Science, 8: 349-354. DOI: 10.3923/ijps.2009.349.354

Lee KW, Everts H, Kappert HJ, Van Der Kuilen J, Lemmens AG, Frehner M & Beynen AC. 2004. Growth performance, intestinal viscosity, fat digestibility and plasma cholesterol in broiler chickens fed a rye-containing diet without or with essential oil components. International Journal of Poultry Science, 3: 613-618. DOI: 10.3923/ijps.2004.613.618

Lepage KT, Bloom SE & Taylor RL. 1996. Antibody response to sheep red blood cells in a major histocompatibility (B) complex aneuploid line of chickens. Poultry Science, 75: 346-350. DOI: 10.3382/ps.0750346

Manach C, Regerat F, Texier O, Agullo G, Demigne C & Remesy C. 1996. Bioavailability, metabolism and physiological impact of 4-oxo-flavonoids. Nutrition Research, 16: 517-544. DOI: 10.1016/0271-5317(96)00032-2

Marcu A, Vacaru-Opriş I, Dumitrescu G, Ciochina LP, Marcu A, Nicula M, PeţI, Dronca D & Kelciov B. 2013. The influence of the genotype on economic efficiency of broiler chicken’s growth. Scientific Papers Animal Science and Biotechnologies, 46: 339-346.

Mathlouthi N, Bouzaienne T, Oueslati I, Recoquillay F, Hamdi M, Urdaci M & Bergaoui R. 2012. Use of rosemary, oregano, and a commercial blend of essential oils in broiler chickens: in vitro antimicrobial activities and effects on growth performance. Journal of Animal Science, 90: 813-823. DOI: 10.2527/jas.2010-3646

Paturi G, Phillips M, Jones M & Kailasapathy K. 2007. Immune enhancing effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus LAFTI L10 and Lactobacillus paracasei LAFTI L26 in mice. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 115: 115-118. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2006.10.007

Pluske JR, Thompson MJ, Atwood CS, Bird PH, Williams IH & Hartmann PE. 1996. Maintenance of villus height and crypt depth, and enhancement of disaccharide digestion and monosaccharide absorption, in piglets fed on cows' whole milk after weaning. British Journal of Nutrition, 76: 409-22. DOI: 10.1079/bjn19960046

Pournazari M, AA-Qotbi A, Seidavi A & Corazzin M. 2017. Prebiotics, probiotics and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) for broilers: performance, carcass traits and blood variables. Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Pecuarias, 30: 3-10. DOI: 10.17533/udea.rccp.v30n1a01

Ragga NM, Kornay RS & Mohamad F. 2016. Effects of thyme/or formic acid dietary supplementation on broiler performance and immunity. Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia, 10: 270-279. DOI: 10.1016/j.aaspro.2016.09.064

Samadian F, Zeinoaldini S, Towhidi A, Torshizi MA, Pirasaraei ZA & Gholamzadeh P. 2013. Evaluation of some phytogenic feed additives in growing chicks’ diet. International Journal of Agriculture, 3: 35-43. DOI: 10.1399/EPS.2014.55

Seidavi A, Dadashbeiki M, Alimohammadi-Saraei MH, van den Hoven R, Payan-Carreira R, Laudadio V & Tufarelli V. 2017. Effects of dietary inclusion level of a mixture of probiotic cultures and enzymes on broiler chicken’s immunity response. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 24: 4637-4644. DOI: 10.1007/s11356-016-8206-8

Sengül T, Yurtseven S, Cetin M, Kocyigit A & Sögüt B. 2008. Effect of thyme (T. vulgaris) extracts on fattening performance, some blood parameters, oxidative stress and DNA damage in Japanese quails. Journal of Animal and Feed Sciences, 17: 608-620. DOI: 10.22358/jafs/66689/2008

Simitzi PE & Deligeorgis SG. 2011. The effects of natural antioxidants dietary supplementation on the properties of farm animal products. In Animal Feed: Types, Nutrition, Safety; Nova Science Publishers, Inc.: New York, NY, USA; 155-168.

Simitzis PE. 2017. Enrichment of animal diets with essential oils—a great perspective on improving animal performance and quality characteristics of the derived products. Medicines, 4: E35. DOI: 10.3390/medicines4020035

Stoica R, Şomoghi R & Ion RM. 2013. Preparation of chitosan-tripolyphosphate nanoparticles for the encapsulation of polyphenols extracted from rose hips. Digest Journal of Nanomaterials and Biostructures (DJNB), 8: 955-963.

Tabidi MH, Mukhtar AM & Mohammed HI. 2013. Effects of probiotic and antibiotic on performance and growth attributes of broiler chicks. Global Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 1: 136–142.

Toghyani M, Tohidi M, Gheisari AA & Tabeidian SA. 2010. Performance, immunity, serum biochemical and hematological parameters in broiler chicks fed dietary thyme as alternative for an antibiotic growth promoter. African Journal of Biotechnology, 9: 6819-6825. DOI: 10.5897/AJB09.1998

Tsirtsikos P, Fegeros K, Balaskas C, Kominakis A & Mountzouris KC. 2012. Dietary probiotic inclusion level modulates intestinal mucin composition and mucosal morphology in broilers. Poultry Science, 91: 1860-1868. DOI: 10.3382/ps.2011-02005

Yadav GB, Kadam AS, Pachpande AM, Lambate SB, Lonkar VD, Maini S & Ravikanth K. 2010. Post hatch histo-morphological studies of small intestinal development in chicks fed with herbal early chick nutritional supplement. International Journal of Poultry Science, 9: 851-855. DOI: 10.3923/ijps.2010.851.855

Yakhkeshi S, Rahimi S & GharibNaseri K. 2011. The effects of comparison of herbal extracts, antibiotic, probiotic and organic acid on serum lipids, immune response, GIT microbial population, intestinal morphology and performance of broilers. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 10: 80-95.

Yang CM, Cao GT, Ferket PR, Liu TT, Zhou L, Zhang L, Xiao YP & Chen AG. 2012. Effects of probiotic, Clostridium butyricum, on growth performance, immune function, and cecal microflora in broiler chickens. Poultry Science, 91: 2121-2129. DOI: 10.3382/ps.2011-02131

Zhang ZF, Zhou TX, Ao X & Kim IH. 2012. Effects of β-glucan and Bacillus subtilis on growth performance, blood profiles, relative organ weight and meat quality in broilers fed maize–soybean meal based diets. Livestock Science, 150: 419-424. DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2012.10.003