Amiri N, Salarmoini M, Tasharofi S& Eslami M. 2015. Investigation the effects of injection of different nutrients into yolk sac of fertile eggs, with 36 h post-hatch starvation, on hatchability, performance and blood metabolites of broilers. Iranian Journal of Animal Science, 46: 17-27 (in Persian).
AOAC. 2005. Ofﬁcial Methods of Analysis. AOAC International, Arlington, VA.
Bhanja AB, Mandal AB, Agarwal SK, Majumdar S&Bhattacharyya A. 2007. Effect of in ovo injection of vitamins on the chick weight and post-hatch growth performance in broiler chickens. Proc of the 16th European Symposium on Poultry Nutrition, Strasbourg, France.pp.143-146.
Bhattacharya L. 2010. Biochemistry of Nutrition. Firsted. Discovery Publishing Pvt. New Delhi, India.
Bohorquez DV, Bohorquez NE& Ferket PR. 2011. Ultrastructural development of the small intestinal mucosa in the embryo and turkey poult: A light and electron microscopy study. Poultry Science,90: 842-855. DOI: 10.3382/ps.2010-00939
Chamani M, Tasharofi S, Forudi F, Sadeghi AA& Aminafshar M. 2012. Evaluation the effects of in ovo injection of different nutrients on hatch percentage, performance and carcass parameters of broilers. Annals of Biological Research,3: 3771-3776.
Cheled-Shoval SL, Amit-Romach E, Barbakov M& Uni Z. 2011. The effect of in ovo administration of mannan oligosaccharide on small intestine development during the pre- and posthatch periods in chickens. Poultry Science, 90: 2301-2310. DOI:10.3382/ps.2011-01488
Chou SH, Chung TK& Yu B. 2009. Effects of supplemental 25-hydroxycholecalciferol on growth performance, small intestinal morphology, and immune response of broiler chickens. Poultry Science,88: 2333-2341. DOI: 10.3382/ps.2009-00283
Decuypere E, Tona K, Bruggeman V& Bamelis F. 2001. The day-old chick, a crucial hinge between breeders and broilers. World’s Poultry Science Journal, 57: 127-138. DOI: 10.1079/WPS20010010
Dorr PE& Nockels CF. 1971. Effects of aging and dietary ascorbic acid on tissue ascorbic acid in the domestic hen. Poultry Science,50: 1375-1382. DOI: 10.3382/ps.0501375
El-Gendi GM, Iraqi MM& Abdelrahman AA. 1999. Effect of vitamin C supplementation on some productive and physiological parameters in laying hens. Egyptian Journal of Nutrition and Feed,2: 649-664.
Eslami M, Salarmoini M& Tasharrofi S. 2014. Effects of in-ovo injection of different nutrients on the hatchability and growth performance in broilers. Journal of Livestock Science and Technologies,2: 1-7.
Foye OT, Uni Z& Ferket PR. 2006. Effect of in ovo feeding egg white protein, β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate, and carbohydrates on glycogen status and neonatal growth of turkeys. Poultry Science,85: 1185-1192. DOI: 10.1093/ps/85.7.1185
Frandson RD. 1986. Anatomy and Physiology of Farm Animals. 7th ed. Lea and Febiger Publisher, Phila, USA.
Geyra A, Uni Z& Sklan D. 2001. Enterocyte dynamics and mucosal development in the posthatch chick. Poultry Science,80:776-782. DOI: 10.1093/ps/80.6.776
Ghonim AI, Awad AL, Fattouh MH& El-Shhat AM. 2009. Comparative study of ascorbic acid treatment methods on hatchability traits and growth performance of ducklings. Egyptian Poultry Science Journal, 29: 1085-1099.
Hajati H, Hassanabadi A, golian A, Nassiri Moghaddam H&Nassiri MR. 2014. The effect of in ovo injection of grape seed extract and vitamin C on hatchability, antioxidant activity, yolk sac weight, performance and ileal microflora of broiler chickens. Research Opinions in Animal and Veterinary Sciences,4: 633-638.
Hajati H, Hassanabadi A, golian A, Nassiri Moghaddam H&Nassiri MR. 2015. The Effect of grape seed extract and vitamin C feed supplementation on some blood parameters and HSP70 gene expression of broiler chickens suffering from chronic heat stress. Italian Journal of Animal Science,14:1-9. DOI: 10.4081/ijas.2014.3273
Hartono K, Reed S, Ankrah N, Glahn R& Tako E. 2015. Alterations in gut microflora populations and brush border functionality following intra-amniotic daidzein administration. RSC Advances, 5: 6407-6412. DOI: 10.1039/C4RA10962G
Ipek A, Sahin U& Yilmaz B. 2003. The effect of in ovo ascorbic acid and glucose injection in broiler breeder eggs on hatchability and chick weight. Arch Geflügelk, 68: 132- 135.
Karadas F, Surai PF& Sparks NHC. 2011. Changes in broiler chick tissue concentrations of lipid-soluble antioxidants immediately post-hatch. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology,160: 68-71. DOI: 10.1016/j.cbpa.2011.05.006
Keralapurath MM, Corzo A, Pulikanti R, Zhai W& Peebles ED. 2010. Effects of in ovo injection of L-carnitine on hatchability and subsequent broiler performance and slaughter yield. Poultry Science,89: 1497-1501. DOI: 10.3382/ps.2009-00551
Keshavarz K. 1996. The effect of different levels of vitamin C and cholecalciferol with adequate or marginal levels of dietary calcium on performance and eggshell quality of laying hens. Poultry Science,75:1227-1235. DOI: 10.3382/ps.0751227
Kutlu HR. 2001. Influences of wet feeding and supplementation with ascorbic acid on performance and carcass composition of broiler chicks exposed to a high ambient temperature. Archives of Animal Nutrition,54: 127-139. DOI: 10.1080/17450390109381972
Leeson S& Summers JD. 2001. Scott's Nutrition of the Chicken. 4th ed. Nottingham University Press, England.
McKay LI& Cidlowski JA. 2003. Physiologic and pharmacologic effects of corticosteroids. Holland-Frei cancer medicine. 6th ed. Hamilton: BC Decker.
McDowell LR. 2000. Vitamins in Animal and Human Nutrition. 2nd ed. Iowa State University Press, Iowa, USA.
Mousavi S, Shivazad M, Chamani M, Sadeghi A& Lotfolahian H. 2009. Study of in ovo feeding as an early nutrition method in broiler chicken. Dynamic Agriculture, 5: 417-425.
Newman S& Leeson S. 1997. Skeletal integrity in layers at the completion of egg production. World’sPoultry ScienceJournal, 53: 265-277. DOI: 10.1079/WPS19970021
Nowaczewski S, Kontecka H& Krystianiak S. 2012. Effect of in ovo injection of vitamin C during incubation on hatchability of chickens and ducks. Folia Biologica, 60: 93-97.
Pardue SL& Thaxton JP. 1986. Ascorbic acid in poultry. A review. World’s Poultry Science Journal, 42: 107-123.DOI: 10.1079/WPS19860009
SAS Institute. 2005. SAS User’s Guide. Version 9.1 ed. SAS Institute, Cary, NC.
Selim SA, Gaafar KM &El-Ballal SS. 2012. Influence of in ovo administration with vitamin E and ascorbic acid on the performance of Muscovy ducks. Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture, 24: 264-271.
Tako E, Ferket PR& Uni Z. 2004. Effects of in ovo feeding of carbohydrates and beta-hydroxy beta- methyl butyrate on the development of chicken intestine. World's Poultry Science Journal, 57: 2023-2028. DOI: 10.1093/ps/83.12.2023
Tako E& Glahn RP. 2012. Intra-amniotic administration and dietary inulin affect the iron status and intestinal functionality of iron-deficient broiler chickens. Poultry Science,91: 1361-70. DOI: 10.3382/ps.2011-01864
Thompson KL& Applegate TJ. 2006. Feed withdrawal alters small-intestinal morphology and mucus of broilers. Poultry Science,85: 1535-1540. DOI: 10.1093/ps/85.9.1535
Weiser H, Schlachter M, Probst HP& Kormann AW. 1990. The relevance of ascorbic acid for bone metabolism. Proc of the 2nd Symposium. Kartause, Ittingen, Switzerland.
Yair R, Shahar R& Uni Z. 2015. In ovo feeding with minerals and vitamin D3 improves bone properties in hatchlings and mature broilers. Poultry Science,94: 2695-707. DOI: 10.3382/ps/pev252
Zakaria AH& Al-Anez MA. 1996. Effects of ascorbic acid and cooling during egg incubation on hatchability culling, mortality, and body weights of broilers chickens. Poultry Science,75: 1204-1209. DOI: 10.3382/ps.0751204
Zakaria AH. 2001. Effect of ascorbic acid treatment during egg incubation on the pre-and post-hatching development of broiler chickens. Damascus University Journal for the Agricultural Sciences, 17: 118-130.
Zhai W, Rowe DE& Peebles ED. 2011. Effects of commercial in ovo injection of carbohydrates on broiler embryogenesis. Poultry Science,90:1295-1301. DOI: 10.3382/ps.2010-01130.