Evaluation of Non- linear Growth Curves Models for Native Slow-growing Khazak Chickens

Document Type: Original Paper


1 Research Center of Special Domestic Animals, University of Zabol, Zabol, Iran

2 Department of Animal Science and Bioinformatics, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zabol, Zabol, Iran

3 Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zabol, Zabol, Iran


Native poultry is a valuable genetic source with high resistance against diseases providing an important subject for breeding programs. The non-linear mathematical modeling of the growth pattern may partly explain the relationship between requirements and body weight to precise feeding that plays a vital role in the animal enterprises. A study was conducted to compare five non-linear models including Gompertz, Richards, Lopez, Logistic, and Von Bertalanffy describing the growth curve of Khazak native chickens. A total of 120 Khazak chickens (male and female) were individually weighed from 0 to 29 weeks under the same condition. The models were fitted on body weight data set and then evaluated by goodness-of-fit criteriaincluding root mean square error (RMSE), Bayesian information criterion (BIC), Akaike information criterion (AIC), and adjusted coefficient of determination (R2Adj). Based on goodness-of-fit criteria, Lopez model was the most suitable one for describing the growth curves in female and male chickens. The effect of sex was significantly important on curve parameters in all models (P< 0.05). The highest and lowest initial weight (W0) parameter was estimated by Logistic and Richards models, respectively, however, the other parameters of the growth curves were higher in Lopez model compared to others. Male chickens had higher values for age (ti), and weight (wi) at inflection point than females. Using an appropriate model to describe the growth curve in native Khazak chickens could increase the accuracy of selection for rapid growth at early stages of age.


Adenaike A, Akpan U, Udoh JE, Wheto M, Durosaro SO, Sanda AJ & Ikeobi CON. 2017. Comparative evaluation of growth functions in three broiler strains of Nigerian chickens. Pertanika Journal of Tropical Agricultural Science , 40: 611-620.

Aggrey S. 2002. Comparison of three nonlinear and spline regression models for describing chicken growth curves. Poultry Science, 81: 1782-1788. DOI: 10.1093/ps/81.12.1782

Akbas Y& Oguz I. 1998. Growth curve parameters of lines of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica), unselected and selected for four-week body weight. Archiv fuer Gefluegelkunde, 62: 104-109.

Cooper RG. 2005. Growth in the ostrich (Struthio camelus var. domesticus). Animal Science Journal, 76: 1-4. DOI: 10.1111/j.1740-0929.2005.00230.x

Dessie T, Dana N, Ayalew W& Hanotte O. 2012. Current state of knowledge on indigenous chicken genetic resources of the tropics: domestication, distribution and documentation of information on the genetic resources. World's Poultry Science Journal, 68: 11-20. DOI: 10.1017/s0043933912000025

Dessie T, TayeT, Dana N, Ayalew W& Hanotte O. 2011. Current state of knowledge on phenotypic characteristics of indigenous chickens in the tropics. World's Poultry Science Journal, 67:  507-516. DOI: 10.1017/s0043933911000559

DouradoLRB,Sakomura NK, Nascimento DCN, Dorigam JC, Marcato SM & Fernandes JBK. 2009. Growth and performance of naked neck broiler reared in free-range system. Ciência e Agrotecnologia, 33:  875-881.

Eleroğlu H, YıldırımA, Şekeroğlu A, Çoksöyler FN & Duman M. 2014. Comparison of growth curves by growth models in slow-growing chicken genotypes raised the organic system. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 16:  529-535.

Goto T, Goto N, Shiraishi JI, Bungo T & Tsudzuki M. 2010. Comparison of growth curves of four breeds of Japanese native chicken, Onaga-dori, Tosa-jidori, Ukokkei and Hinai-dori. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 9: 1362-1365. DOI: 10.3923/javaa.2010.1362.1365

Lee Y. 2006. Taiwan country chicken: a slow growth breed for eating quality. In: Symposium, 2006 Scientific Cooperation in Agriculture between Council of Agriculture (Taiwan, ROC) and Institut National de Recherche Agronomique (France). pages, 121-132.

Magothe T, Okeno T, Muhuyi W&Kahi A. 2012. Indigenous chicken production in Kenya: I. Current status. World's Poultry Science Journal, 68: 119-132. DOI: 10.1017/s0043933912000128

Manjula P,Park HB, Yoo J, Wickramasuriya S, Seo DW, Choi NR, Kim CD, Kang BS, Oh KS & Sohn SH. 2016. Comparative study on growth patterns of 25 commercial strains of Korean native chicken. Korean Journal of Poultry Science, 43: 1-14. DOI: 10.5536/kjps.2016.43.1.1

Masoudi A &Azarfar A. 2017. Comparison of nonlinear models describing growth curves of broiler chickens fed on different levels of corn bran. International Journal of Avian and Wildlife Biology, 2: 1-7. DOI: 10.15406/ijawb.2017.02.00012

Michalczuk M, Damaziak K& Goryl A. 2016. Sigmoid models for the growth curves in medium-growing meat type chickens, raised under semi-confined conditions. Annals of Animal Science, 16:  65-77. DOI: 10.1515/aoas-2015-0061

Mignon-Grasteau S& Beaumont C. 2000. Growth curves in birds. Productions Animales, 13:  337-348.

N’dri A, Mignon-Grasteau S, Sellier N, Tixier-Boichard M& Beaumont C. 2006. Genetic relationships between feed conversion ratio, growth curve and body composition in slow-growing chickens. British Poultry Science, 47:  273-280. DOI: 10.1080/00071660600753664

Narinc D, Aksoy T, Karaman E& Ilaslan Curek D. 2010. Analysis of fitting growth models in medium growing chicken raised indoor system. Trends in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, 1: 12-18.

Narinç D, Narinc NÖ& Aygün A. 2017. Growth curve analyses in poultry science. World's Poultry Science Journal, 73: 395-408. DOI: 10.1017/s0043933916001082

Norris D,Ngambi JW, Benyi K, Makgahlele ML, Shimelis HA & Nesamvuni EA. 2007. Analysis of growth curves of indigenous male Venda and Naked Neck chickens. South African Journal of Animal Science, 37:  21-26.

Padhi MK. 2016. Importance of indigenous breeds of chicken for rural economy and their improvements for higher production performance, Scientifica, 1-9. DOI: 10.1155/2016/2604685

Pinheiro J, Bates D, DebRoy S& Sarkar D. 2014. R Core Team, nlme: linear and nonlinear mixed effects models. R package version 3.1-117.Web. http://CRAN. R-project. org/package= nlme. Accessed on June 1. 2018

Rizzi C, Contiero B& Cassandro M. 2013. Growth patterns of Italian local chicken populations. Poultry Science, 92:  2226-2235. DOI: 10.3382/ps.2012-02825

Santos A, Sakomura N, Freitas E, Fortes C& Carrilho E. 2005. Comparison of free range broiler chicken strains raised in confined or semi-confined systems. Revista Brasileira de Ciência Avícola, 7:  85-92. DOI: 10.1590/s1516-635x2005000200004

Şengul T & Kiraz S. 2005. Non-linear models for growth curves in large white turkeys. Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, 29: 331-337.

Teleken JT, Galvão AC& Robazza WDS. 2017. Comparing non-linear mathematical models to describe growth of different animals, Acta Scientiarum. Animal Sciences, 39:  73-81.

Tompić T, Dobša J, Legen S, Tompić N & Medić H. 2011. Modeling the growth pattern of in-season and off-season Ross 308 broiler breeder flocks. Poultry Science, 90: 2879-2887. DOI: 10.3382/ps.2010-01301

Vali N.2008. Indigenous chicken production in Iran: a review. Pakistan journal of biological Sciences, 11: 2525. DOI: 10.3923/pjbs.2008.2525.2531

Yang H, Xv Q& Dai G. 2004. Analysis on three kinds of growth curve in avian. Chinese Poultry Science, 8: 164-166.

Yaylak E. 2000. Heritability estimates of growth curve parameters and genetic correlations between the growth curve parameters and weights at different age of Japanese quail. Archiv für Geflügelkunde, 64: 141-146.

Zhao Z,Li S, Huang H, Li C, Wang Q & Xue L. 2015. Comparative study on growth and developmental model of indigenous chicken breeds in China. Open Journal of Animal Sciences, 5: 219- 223. DOI: 10.4236/ojas.2015.52024