Ajakaiye A, Atteh AJO & Leeson BS. 2003.Biological availability of calcium in broiler chicks from different calcium sources found in Nigeria. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 104: 209–214.DOI: 10.1016/S0377-8401(02)00332-2
Alu SE. 2013. Effect of replacing bone ash with eggshell meal on nutrient digestibility and blood parameters of broiler chickens. Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science, 3:125–129.
AOAC. 2000.Official Methods of Analysis.Association of Official Analytical Chemists.,Gaithersburg, MD.
Bao SF, Windisch W &Kirchgessner M. 1997.Calcium bioavailability of different organic and inorganic dietary Ca sources (citrate, lactate, acetate, oyster shell, eggshell, β –tri-Ca phosphate). Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, 78: 154–160. DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0396.1997.tb00866.x
Bintvihok A &Kositcharoenkul S. 2006. Effect of dietary calcium propionate on performance, hepatic enzyme activities and aflatoxin residues in broiler chickens fed a diet containing low levels of aflatoxin B1. Toxicon, 47: 41–46.DOI: 10.1016/j.toxicon.2005.09.009
Brister RD,Lintonc SS &Creger CR. 1981. Effects of dietary calcium sources and particle size on laying hen performance. Poultry Science, 60: 2648–2654.DOI: 10.3382/ps.0602648
Cufadar Y. 2014. Effect of alternative calcium sources on performance and eggshell quality in laying hens. The Journal of MacroTrends in Applied Science, 2: 1–6.
DupoirieuxL, Pourquier D &Souyris F. 1995.Powdered eggshell – a pilot study on a new bone substitute for use in maxillofacial surgery.Journal of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery, 23: 187-194. DOI: 10.1016/S1010-5182(05)80009-5
Gonzalez Vega JC. 2012.Aspects of calcium digestibiliy in pigs. M.Sc. Thesis. University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, USA. Pages, 6–16.
Guinotre F &Nys Y. 1991.Effects of particle size and origin of calcium sources on eggshell quality and bone mineralization in egg laying hens. Poultry Science, 70: 583–592. DOI: 10.3382/ps.0700583
Leeson S & Summers JD. 2009. Commercial Poultry Nutrition. Nottingham University Press. Ontario, Canada. Page, 49.
Lichovnikova M. 2007. The effect of dietary calcium source, concentration and particle size on calcium retention, eggshell quality and overall calcium requirement in laying hens. British Poultry Science, 48: 71–75.DOI: 10.1080/00071660601148203
McDonald P, Edward F &Greenhalgh JFD. 1992.Animal Nutrition.4thed. John Willey and SonsInc. New York. Pages, 156–170.
McNaughton JL. 1981. Effect of calcium carbonate particle size on the available phosphorus requirement of broiler chicks. Poultry Science, 60: 197–203. DOI: 10.3382/ps.0600197
Mine Y, Oberle C &Kassaify Y. 2003.Eggshell matrix proteins as defense mechanism of avian eggs. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemestry, 51: 249–253. DOI: 10.1021/jf020597x
Omole AJ, Ogbosuka GE, Salako RA &Ajayi OO. 2005. Effect of replacing oyster shell with gypsum in broiler finisher diet. Journal of Applied Sciences Research, 1: 245–248.
Oso AO, Idowu AA &Niameh OT. 2011. Growth response, nutrient and mineral retention, bone mineralisation and walking ability of broiler chickens fed with dietary inclusion of various unconventional mineral sources. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, 95: 461–467. DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0396.2010.01073.x
Poneros-Schneier AG &Erdman JW. 1989. Bioavailability of calcium from sesame seeds, almond powder, whole wheat bread, spinach and non-fat dry milk in rats. Journal of Food Science, 54: 150–153.DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2621.1989.tb08589.x
Roland DA. 1989. Eggshell quality IV: Oyster shells versus limestone and the importance of particle size of solubility of calcium source. World's Poultry Science Journal, 42: 166–171.DOI: 10.1079/WPS19860013
Roland DA &Bryant M. 2000.Nutrition and feeding for optimum eggshell quality. Proceedings of the XXI Worlds Poultry Congress, Montreal, Canada, 20-24 September, Pages, 1–9.
SAS, Institute. 2004. SAS/STAT User’s Guide, Statistics. Release 9.1. SAS Institute Inc. Cary, NC.
Saunders-Blades JL, MacIsaac JL, Korver DR &Anderson DM. 2009.The effect of calcium source and particle size on the production performance and bone quality of laying hens.Poultry Science, 88: 338–353.DOI: 10.3382/ps.2008-00278
Schaafsma A, Pakan I, Hofstede GJH, Muskiet FAJ, van Der Veer E &De Vries PJF. 2000. Mineral, amino acid, and hormonal composition of chicken eggshell powder and the evaluation of its use in human nutrition. Poultry Science, 79: 1833–1838. DOI: 10.1093/ps/79.12.1833
Scheideler SE. 1998. Eggshell calcium effects on egg quality and Ca digestibility in first- or third-cycle laying hens. Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 7: 69–74.DOI: 10.1093/japr/7.1.69
Scott ML, Nesheim MC &Yaung RG. 1976.Nutrition of the Chicken, Ithaca, NY. Pages, 7–54.
Talpur MZ, Rind MI, Memon A, Shar FN &Ujjan AN. 2012.Effect of dietary calcium on the performance of commercial chicken.Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, 2: 101–106.
Tsugawa N, Okano T, Higashino R, Kimura T, Oshio Y, Teraoka Y, Igarashi C, Ezawa I &Kobayashi T. 1995. Bioavailability of calcium carbonate, DL-calcium lactate, L-calcium lactate and powdered oyster shell calcium in vitamin D-deficient or D-replete rats.Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 5: 677–682.
Williams CH, David DJ &Iismaa O. 1962. The determination of chromic oxide in faeces samples by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Journal of Agriculture Science, 59: 381–385.
Zaghari M&Riahi M. 2006. Effect of heat processing on wheat amino acid digestibility in broiler nutrition. Journal of Veterinary Research, 61: 293- 299. (Persian with English abstract)