Effects of Supplemental Zinc in a Wheat-Based Diet on Performance, Intestinal Viscosity, Immune System and Lipid Peroxidation of 21-Day Old Broiler Chickens

Document Type: Original Paper

Authors

Department of Animal Science, College of Agriculture, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran

Abstract

We investigated the effects of a wheat-based diet (WBD) supplemented with different levels of zinc on the performance, intestinal viscosity, immune system and lipid peroxidation of broiler chickens. A total of 240 Ross 308 day-old male broiler chicks were weighed and assigned to six dietary treatments with four replicates (floor pens) of ten birds per pen. Dietary treatments consisted of a WBD without Zn supplement in mineral premix (control), or with 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 mg/kg of Zn in the diet. Feed intake, body weight gain, and feed conversion ratio were recorded after 21 days. On day 21, blood serum malondialdehyde concentration, intestinal digesta viscosity, and some internal organs were measured. Antibody titer against Sheep red blood cells (SRBC) were measured on days 7 and 14 after injection. For evaluation of cutaneous basophil hypersensitivity (CBH) response, on d 20, phytohemagglutinin was injected subcutaneously into toe web and 12 and 24 hrs after injection, the thickness of the web was measured. Supplementation of the WBD with 20, 40, 60, and 80 mg Zn/kg significantly improved feed conversion ratio (P < 0.05). Supplementation of Zn significantly decreased the relative weight of abdominal fat pad as well as jejunal viscosity (P < 0.05). Also, Zn supplementation (at all concentrations except 20 mg/kg) significantly decreased serum malondialdehyde concentration (P< 0.05). Anti-SRBC titer was significantly increased by supplementation of the WBD with 20 mg/kg Zn (P < 0.05). Supplementation of the WBD with 40 mg/kg Zn significantly increased CBH response (P < 0.05). Overall, the results of this study indicate the importance of Zn supplementation in WBD for improvement of FCR and physicochemical properties of the intestinal contents. Also, supplementation of Zn in the WBD is effective in enhancing immune system responses and antioxidative defense.

Keywords


Al-Fawaeir S, Akgul EO & Cayci T. 2011. Comparison of two methods for malondialdehyde measurement. Journal of Clinical and Analytical Medicine, 2: 11-14.

Ao T, Pierce JL, Pescatore AJ, Cantor AH, Dawson KA, Ford MJ & Shafer BL. 2007. Effects of organic zinc and phytase supplementation in a maize-soybean meal diet on the performance and tissue zinc content of broiler chicks. British Poultry Science, 48: 690-695. DOI:  10.1080/00071660701694072

Askari M, Khatibjoo A, Taherpoor K, Fattahnia F & Souri H. 2015. Effects of calcium, phosphorus and zinc in wheat‐based diets on broiler chickens' performance, immunity and bone parameters. Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science, 5: 723-730.

Azevedo Neto AD, Prisco JT, Enéas-Filhog J, Abreu CEB & Gomes-Filho E. 2006. Effect of salt stress on antioxidative enzymes and lipid peroxidation in leaves and roots of salt tolerant and salt sensitive maize genotypes. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 56: 87-94. DOI: 10.1016/j.envexpbot.2005.01.008

Bryden WL. 1990. Inclusion of low metabolisable energy wheat in broiler diets and the incidence of the fatty liver and kidney syndrome. Research in Veterinary Science, 49: 243-244.

Choct M & Annison G. 1990. Anti–nutritive activity of wheat pentosans in broiler diets. British Poultry Science, 31: 811-821. DOI:  10.1080/00071669008417312

Choct M & Annison G. 1992. Anti-nutritive effect of wheat pentosans in broiler chickens: Roles of viscosity and gut microflora. British Poultry Science, 33: 821-834. DOI: 10.1080/00071669208417524

Duncan, DB. 1955. Multiple range and multiple F tests. Biometrics, 11: 1–42.

Erf GF. 2004. Cell-mediated immunity in poultry. Poultry Science, 83: 580-590. DOI: 10.1093/ps/83.4.580

Flchuk KH & Vallee BL. 1985. Zinc and chromatin structure composition and function. In: Mills CF, Bremner I & Chesters Jk. (Eds). Trace Elements in Man and Animals. CABI Publishing, UK. 1004 Pages.

Gajula SS, Chelasani VK, Panda AK, Mantena VLN & Savaram RR. 2011. Effect of supplemental inorganic Zn and Mn and their interactions on the performance of broiler chicken, mineral bioavailability, and immune response.  Biological Trace Element Research, 139: 177–187. DOI: 10.1007/s12011-010-8647-8

Haghighi HR, Gong J, Gyles CL, Hayes MA, Sanei B, Parvizi P, Gisavi H, Chambers JR & Sharif S. 2005. Modulation of antibody- mediated immune response by probiotics in chickens. Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology, 12: 1387-1392. DOI: 10.1128/CDLI.12.12.1387-1392.2005

Hedemann MS, Jensen BB & Paulsen HD. 2006. Influence of dietary zinc and copper on digestive enzyme activity and intestinal morphology in weaned pigs. Journal of Animal Science, 84: 3310-3320. DOI: 10.2527/jas.2005-701

Højberg O, Canibe N, Poulsen HD, Hedemann MS & Jensen BB. 2005. Influence of dietary zinc oxide and copper sulfate on the gastrointestinal ecosystem in newly weaned piglets. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 71: 2267-2277. DOI: 10.1128/AEM.71.5.2267-2277.2005

Hojyo S, Miyai T & Fukada T. 2015. B-cell receptor strength and zinc signaling: Unraveling the role of zinc transporter ZIP10 in humoral immunity. Receptors and Clinical Investigation, 2: e387. DOI: 10.14800/rci.387

Hopfer U. 2002. Digestion and absorption of basic nutritional constituents. In: Devlin TM. (Eds). Textbook of Biochemistry with Clinical Correlations (5th ed). John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, USA. 1240 Pages.

Hosseini-Mansoub N, Chekani-Azar S, Tehrani A, Lotfi A & Khosravi Manesh M. 2010. Influence of dietary vitamin E and zinc on performance, oxidative stability and some blood measures of broiler chickens reared under heat stress (35°C). Journal of Agrobiology, 27: 103–110. DOI: 10.2478/s10146-009-0012-1

Jacobs LR. 1983. Effects of dietary fiber on mucosal growth and cell proliferation in the small intestine of the rat: a comparison of oat bran, pectin, and guar with total fiber deprivation. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 37: 954-960.

Jin L, Reynolds LP, Redmer DA, Caton JS & Crenshaw JD. 1994. Effects of dietary fiber on intestinal growth, cell proliferation, and morphology in growing pigs. Journal of Animal Science, 72: 2270-2278. DOI: 10.2527/1994.7292270x

Józefiak D, Rutkowski A & Martin SA. 2004. Carbohydrate fermentation in the avian ceca: a review. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 113: 1-15. DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2003.09.007

Kang X, Zhong W, Liu J, Song Z, McClain CJ, Kang YJ & Zhou Z. 2009. Zinc supplementation reverses alcohol-induced steatosis in mice through reactivating hepatocyte nuclear factor-4α and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α. Hepatology, 50: 1241–1250. DOI: 10.1002/hep.23090

Khoramabadi V, Akbari MR, Khajali F, Noorani H & Rahmatnejad E. 2014. Influence of xylanase and vitamin A in wheat-based diet on performance, nutrients digestibility, small intestinal morphology and digesta viscosity in broiler chickens. Acta Scientiarum Animal Sciences, 36: 379-384. DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v36i4.23910 

Kim WK & Patterson PH. 2004. Effects of dietary zinc supplementation on broiler performance and nitrogen loss from manure. Poultry Science, 83: 34–38. DOI: 10.1093/ps/83.1.34

Langhout DJ, Schutte JB, Van Leeuwen P, Wiebenga J & Tamminga S. 1999. Effect of dietary high-and low-methylated citrus pectin on the activity of the ileal microflora and morphology of the small intestinal wall of broiler chicks. British Poultry Science, 40: 340-347. DOI: 10.1080/00071669987421

Liao X, Li A, Lu L, Liu S, Li S, Zhang L, Wang G & Luo X. 2013. Optimal dietary zinc levels of broiler chicks fed a corn–soybean meal diet from 22 to 42 days of age. Animal Production Science, 53: 388–394. DOI: 10.1071/AN12291

Lonnerdal B. 2000. Dietary factors influencing zinc absorption. Journal of Nutrition, 130: 1378S-1383S.

Naderi M, Akbari MR, Asadi-Khoshoei E, Khaksar K & Khajali F. 2014. Effects of dietary inclusion of turmeric (Curcuma longa) and cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) powders on performance, organs relative weight and some immune system parameters in broiler chickens. Poultry Science Journal, 2: 153-163. DOI: 10.22069/psj.2014.1963

NRC (National Research Council). 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry. 9th Rev. Ed. National Academy Press. Washington, DC. 176 Pages.

Olkowski BI, Classen HL, Wojnarowicz C & Olkowski AA. 2005. Feeding high levels of lupine seeds to broiler chickens: plasma micronutrient status in the context of digesta viscosity and morphometric and ultrastructural changes in the gastrointestinal tract. Poultry Science, 84: 1707-1715. DOI: 10.1093/ps/84.11.1707

Onderci M, Sahin N, Sahin K & Kilic N. 2003. The antioxidant properties of chromium and zinc: in- vivo effects on digestibility, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant vitamins and some minerals under a low ambient temperature. Biological Trace Element Research, 92: 139-150.

Piel C, Montagne L, Sève B & Lallès JP. 2005. Increasing digesta viscosity using carboxymethylcellulose in weaned piglets stimulates ileal goblet cell numbers and maturation. Journal of Nutrition, 135: 86-91.

Placer ZA, Cushman LL & Johnson BC. 1966.  Estimation of product of lipid peroxidation (malonyl dialdehyde) in biochemical systems. Analytical Biochemistry, 16: 359-364. DOI: 10.1016/0003-2697(66)90167-9

Powell SR. 2000. The antioxidant properties of zinc. Journal of Nutrition, 130: 1447S-1454S.

Prasad AS. 2008. Clinical, immunological, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant roles of zinc. Experimental Gerontology, 43: 370-377. DOI: 10.1016/j.exger.2007.10.013

Prasad AS & Kucuk O. 2002. Zinc in cancer prevention. Cancer Metastasis Reviews, 21: 291- 295. DOI: 10.1023/A:1021215111729

Sahin K & Kucuk O. 2003. Zinc supplementation alleviates heat stress in laying Japanese quail. Journal of Nutrition, 133: 2808-2811.

Sahin K, Smith MO, Onderci M, Sahin N, Gursu MF & Kucuk O. 2005. Supplementation of zinc from organic or inorganic source improves performance and antioxidant status of heat-distressed quail. Poultry Science, 84: 882–887. DOI: 10.1093/ps/84.6.882

Sahin K, Onderci M, Sahin N, Gulcu F, Yildiz N, Avci M & Kucuk O. 2006. Responses of quail to dietary vitamin E and zinc picolinate at different environmental temperatures. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 129: 39-48. DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2005.11.009

Sahin K, Sahin N, kucuk O, Hayirli A & Prasad AS. 2009. Role of dietary zinc in heat–stressed poultry: A review. Poultry Science, 88: 2176-2183. DOI: 10.3382/ps.2008-00560

Sajadifar S & Miranzadeh H. 2013. High levels of zinc stimulate different aspects of immune system in broiler chicks. International Journal of Poultry Science, 12: 94-97.

Sajadifar S, Miranzadeh H & Moazeni M. 2013. Effect of zinc on humoral and cell-mediated immunity of broilers vaccinated against coccidiosis. Iranian Journal of Parasitology, 8: 474-480.

SAS (Statistical Analysis System). 2008. SAS/STAT® 9.2. User’s Guide. SAS Institute Inc. Carry, North Carolina.

Scott TA, Silversides FG, Classen HL, Swift ML & Bedford MR. 1998. Effect of cultivar and environment on the feeding value of Western Canadian wheat and barley samples with and without enzyme supplementation. Canadian Journal of Animal Science, 78: 649-656. DOI: 10.4141/A98-046

Shao Y, Lei Z, Yuan J, Yang Y, Guo Y & Zhang B. 2014. Effect of zinc on growth performance, gut morphometry, and cecal microbial community in broilers challenged with Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium. Journal of Microbiology, 52: 1002-1011. DOI: 10.1007/s12275-014-4347-y

Shyam Sunder G, Panda AK, Gopinath NCS, Rama Rao SV, Raju MVLN, Reddy MR & Vijay Kumar CH. 2008. Effects of higher levels of zinc supplementation on performance, mineral availability and immune competence in broiler chickens. The Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 17: 79-86. DOI: 10.3382/japr.2007-00029

Wu YB, Ravindran V, Thomas DG, Birtles MJ, & Hendriks WH. 2004. Influence of phytase and xylanase, individually or in combination, on performance, apparent metabolisable energy, digestive tract measurements and gut morphology in broilers fed wheat-based diets containing adequate level of phosphorus. British poultry science, 45: 76-84. DOI: 10.1080/00071660410001668897

Yasar S. 2003. Performance, gut size and ileal digesta viscosity of broiler chickens fed with a whole wheat added diet and the diets with different wheat particle sizes. International Journal of Poultry Science, 2: 75-82.

Yogesh K, Deo C, Shrivastava HP, Mandal AB, Wadhwa A & Singh I. 2013. Growth performance, carcass yield, and immune competence of broiler chickens as influenced by dietary supplemental zinc sources and levels. Agricultural Research, 2: 270–274. DOI: 10.1007/s40003-013-0067-5