Effect of Cereal Type and Enzyme Addition on Performance, Pancreatic Enzyme Activity, Intestinal Microflora and Gut Morphology of Broilers

Document Type: Original Paper

Authors

1 Department of Animal Science, Qom Agriculture Research and Education Center, Agricultural Research Education and Extension Organization, Qoam, Iran

2 Department of Animal Science, College of Agriculture, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran

3 Department of Poultry Nutrition and Physiology, Animal Science Research Institute of Iran, Karaj, Iran

Abstract

The effects of grain and carbohydrase enzyme supplementation were investigated on digestive physiology of chickens. A total of 625 one-day-old chicks (Ross 308) were randomly assigned to five treatments in a completely randomized design. Treatments included two different types of grains (wheat, and barley) with or without a multi-carbohydrase supplement. A corn-based diet was also considered to serve as a control. Feeding barley-based diet with multi-carbohydrase led to higher feed intake (P < 0.01) than those fed corn- and wheat-based diets. Birds fed on barley and wheat diets had lower weight gain despite a higher feed conversion ratio (P < 0.01). Total count and number of different type of bacteria including Gram-negative, E. coli, and Clostridia increased after feeding wheat and barley but the number of Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria decreased (P < 0.01). Feeding barley and wheat diets reduced villus height in different parts of the small intestine when compared to those fed on a corn diet. However, enzyme supplementation of barley and wheat diets improved weight gain and feed conversion ratio and resulted in reduced number of E. coli and Clostridia and increased number of Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria, and also restored the negative effects on intestinal villi height (P < 0.01). The activities of pancreatic α-amylase and lipase were (P < 0.01) increased in chickens fed wheat and barley diets when compared to the control fed on a corn diet. Enzyme supplementation reduced the activities of pancreatic α-amylase and lipase (P < 0.01). In conclusion, various dietary non-starch polysaccharides without enzyme supplementation have an adverse effect on digesta viscosity, ileal microflora, villi morphology, and pancreatic enzyme activity.

Keywords


AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists). 2005. Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Analytical Chemists International, 18th ed., 1st Suppl. Gaithersburg, MD U.S.A. [Link]

Brenes A, Smith M, Guener W & Marquardt RR. 1993. Effect of enzyme supplementation on the performance and digestive tract size of broiler chickens fed wheat and barley based diets. Poultry Science, 72: 1731-1739. [Link]

Choct M. 1997. Feed non-starch polysaccharides: chemical structures and nutritional significance. Journal of Feed Milling International. June Issue, pp. 13-26. [Link]

Choct M, Sinlae M, Al-Jassim RAM& Pettersson, D. 2006. Effects of xylanase supplementation on between-bird variation in energy metabolism and the number of Clostridium perfringens in broilers fed a wheat-based diet. Australian Journal of Agriculture Research, 57: 1017-1021. [Link]

Christensen HR, Frokiar H & Pestka JJ. 2002. Lactobacilli differentially modulate expression of cytokines and maturation surface markers in murine dendritic cells. Journal of Immunology, 168: 171- 178. [Link]

Denbow DM. 2000. Gastrointestinal anatomy and physiology. In: Sturkie’s avian physiology, 5th ed. Academic Press, San Diego. pp, 299-325. [Link]

Donohue M & Cunningham DL. 2009. Effects of grain and oilseed prices on the costs of US poultry production. Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 18: 325- 337. [Link]

Iji PA, Saki AA& Tivey DR. 2001. Intestinal development and body growth of broiler chicks on diets supplemented with non-starch polysaccharides. Journal of Animal Feed Science and Technology, 89: 175-188. [Link]

Jamroz D, Jacobsen K, Bach Knudsen KE, Wiliczkiewicz A & Orda J. 2002. Digestibility and energy value of non-starch polysaccharides in young chickens, ducks and geese, fed diet containing high amount of barley. Journal of Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, 131: 657-668. [Link]

Jaroni D, Scheideler SE, Beck MM & Wyatt C. 1999. The effect of dietary wheat middling and enzyme supplementation. II: Apparent nutrient digestibility, digestive tract size, gut viscosity and gut morphology in two strains of leghorn hens. Poultry Science, 78: 841-847. [Link]

Khajali F & Slominski BA. 2012. Factors that affect the nutritive value of canola meal for poultry. Poultry Science, 91: 2564- 2575. [Link]

Langhout DJ, Schutte JB, Van Leeuwen P, Wiebenga J & Tamminga S. 1999. Effect of dietary high-and low-methylated citrus pectin on the activity of the ileal micro flora and morphology of the small intestinal wall of broiler chicks. Journal of British Poultry Science, 40: 340-347. [Link]

Li WF, Feng J, Xu ZR & Yang CM. 2004. Effects of non-starch polysaccharides enzymes on pancreatic and small intestinal digestive enzyme activities in piglet fed diets containing high amounts of barley. World Journal of Gastroenterology, 10: 856-859. [Link]

Lin PH, Shih BI & Hsu JC. 2010. Effects of different source of dietary non-starch polysaccharides on the growth performance, development of digestive tract and activities of pancreatic enzymes in goslings. British Poultry Science, 51: 270-277. [Link]

Mirzaie S, Zaghari M, Aminzadeh S, Shivazad M & Mateos GG. 2012. Effect of wheat inclusion and xylanase supplementation of the diet on productive performance, nutrient retention and endogenous intestinal enzyme activity of laying hens. Poultry Science, 91: 413-425. [Link]

NRC (National Research Council). 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry. 9th Rev. Ed. National Academy Press. Washington, DC. 176 Pages. [Link]

Olukosi OA, Cowieson AJ & Adeola O. 2007. Age-related influence of a cocktail of xylanase, amylase, and protease or phytase individually or in combination in broilers. Poultry Science, 86: 77-86. [Link]

Ravindran V, Selle PH & Bryden WL. 1999. Effects of phytase supplementation, individually and in combination, with glycanase, on the nutritive value of wheat and barley. Poultry Science, 78: 1588-1595. [Link]

Rhee KJ, Jasper PJ, Sethupathi P, Shanmugam N, Lanning D & Knight KL. 2005. Positive selection of the peripheral B cell repertoire in gut-associated lymphoid tissues.  Journal of Experimental Medicine, 201: 55-62. [Link]

Saki AA, Hematti Matin HR, Zamani P, Tabatabai MM. and Vatanchian, M. 2011. Various ratios of pectin to cellulose affect intestinal morphology, DNA quantitation,
and performance of broiler chickens. Journal of Livestock Science, 139: 237-244. [Link]

SAS (Statistical Analysis System). 2003. SAS/STAT® 9.1. User's Guide. SAS Institute Inc. Cary, North Carolina. [Link]

Slominski BA. 2011. Recent advances in research on enzymes for poultry diets. Poultry Science, 90: 2013-2023. [Link]

Williams DA. 1996. The pancreas. In: Strombeck’s small animal gastroenterology. 3rd ed. Saunders, Philadelphia. pp, 381-410. [Link]

Yin YL, Baidoo SK & Boychuk JLL. 2000. Effect of enzyme supplementation on the performance of broilers fed maize, wheat, barley or micronized dehulled barley diets. Journal of Animal Feed Science and Technology, 9: 493-504. [Link]

Zhao F, Hou SS, Zhang HF & Zhang ZY. 2007. Effects of dietary metabolizable energy and crude protein content on the activities of digestive enzymes in jejunal fluid of Peking ducks. Poultry Science, 86: 1690-1695. [Link]