Effects of Dietary Threonine and a Multi Strains Probiotic (Primalac) Supplementation on Growth Performance, Blood Metabolites and Carcass Characteristics in Japanese Quails

Document Type: Original Paper


1 Department of Animal Science, Qaemshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qaemshahr, Iran.

2 Mazandaran Central Laboratory of Veterinary Organization, Sari, Iran.


The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of three levels of threonine (100, 95 and 90% of NRC requirements) with or without of multi strains probiotic (Primalac) on performance, carcass characteristics and blood metabolites of Japanese quails. A total of 180 one-day-old male Japanese quails were randomly allocated to six treatments with three replicates and 10 birds per each. The experiment was done from 0 to 6 weeks of age. Growth performance traits including weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio were recorded. At the end of the experiment, six birds per treatment were slaughtered and carcass characteristics were measured. Blood sampling was taken at 42 days of age. The results of this study indicated that supplementation of probiotic did not affect feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion ratio in quails. In contrast, feed conversion ratio was improved in birds fed with 100% of threonine requirements. All carcass traits, except for liver weight, were not influenced by threonine levels and dietary probiotic supplementation. The liver percentage was higher in birds fed diets without the probiotic. The results showed that serum glucose was affected by threonine levels. However, the other blood metabolites such as cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoproteins and low-density lipoproteins were not influenced by the threonine levels. In this regard, none of the blood metabolites were influenced by probiotic supplement, except for cholesterol. In conclusions, the supplementation of probiotic did not affect growth performance in Japanese quails. However, use of threonine at 100% NRC requirements improved feed efficiency in Japanese quails.


Ahmadi H & Golian A. 2010. The integration of broiler chicken threonine responses data into neural network models. Poultry Science, 89: 2535-2541. [Link]

Awad WA, Ghareeb K, Abdel-Raheem S & Böhm J. 2009. Effects of dietary inclusion of probiotic and synbiotic on growth performance, organ weights, and intestinal histomorphology of broiler chickens. Poultry Science, 88: 49-56. [Link]

Ayasan T, Ozcan BD, Baylan M & Canogullari S. 2006. The effects of dietary inclusion of probiotic protexin on egg yield parameters of Japanese quails. International Journal of Poultry Science, 5: 776-779. [Link]

Bagherzadeh Kasmani F, Karimi Torshizi MA, Allameh A & Shariatmadari F. 2012. A novel aflatoxin-binding Bacillus probiotic: performance, serum biochemistry, and immunological parameters in Japanese quails. Poultry Science, 91: 1846-1853. [Link]

Baylan M, Canogullari S, Ayasan T & Sahin A. 2006. Dietary threonine supplementation for improving growth performance and edible carcass parts in Japanese quails, Coturnix coturnix Japonica. International Journal of Poultry Science, 5: 635-638. [Link]

Carlstedt I, Herrmann A, Karlsson H, Sheehan J, Fransson LA & Hansson GC. 1993. Characterization of two different glycosylated domains from the insoluble mucin complex of rat small intestine. Journal of Biololical Chemistry, 268: 18771-18781. [Link]

Chen KL, Kho WL, You SH, Yeh RH, Tang SW & Hsieh CW. 2009. Effects of Bacillus subtilis var. natto and Saccharomyces cerevisiae mixed fermented feed on the enhanced growth performance of broilers. Poultry Science, 88: 309-315.  [Link]

Dozier WA, Moran ET & Kidd MT. 2000. Responses of fast- and slow- feathering male broilers to dietary threonine during 42 to 56 days of age. Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 9: 460-467. [Link]

Edwards HM, Baker DH, Fernandez SR & Parsons CM. 1997. Maintenance threonine requirement and efficiency of its use for accretion of whole-body threonine and protein in young chicks. British Journal of Nutrition, 78: 111-119. [Link]

Grashorn MA. 2010. Use of phytobiotics in broiler nutrition – an alternative to infeed antibiotics. Journal of Animal and Feed Sciences, 19: 338-347. [Link]

Homma H & Shinohara T. 2004. Effects of probiotic Bacillus cereus toyoi on abdominal fat accumulation in the Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica). Animal Science Journal, 75: 37-41. [Link]

Kabir SML, Rahman MM, Rahman MB, Rahman MM & Ahmed SU. 2004. The dynamics of probiotics on growth performance and immune response in broilers. International Journal of Poultry Science, 3: 361-364. [Link]

Kerr BJ, Kidd MT, McWard GW & Quarles CL. 1999. Interactive effects of lysine and threonine on live performance and breast yield in male broilers. Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 8: 391-399. [Link]

Kidd MT, Zunwalt CD, Chamblee DW, Carden ML & Burnham DJ. 2002. Broiler growth and carcass responses to diets containing L-threonine versus diets containing threonine from intact protein sources. Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 11: 83-89. [Link]

Král M, Angelovičová M & Mrázová L. 2012. Application of probiotics in poultry production. Animal Science and Biotechnologies, 45: 55-57. [Link]

Lan PT, Binh LT & Benno Y. 2003. Impact of two probiotic Lactobacillus strains feeding on fecal lactobacilli and weight gains in chickens. Journal of General and Applied Microbiology, 49: 29-36. [Link]

Miles RD, Wilson HR, Arafa AS, Coligado EC & Ingram DR. 1981. The performance of Bobwhite quails fed diets containing Lactobacillus. Poultry Science, 60: 894-896. [Link]

Myers MR & Klasing KC. 1999. Low glucokinase activity and high rates of gluconeogenesis contribute to hyperglycemia in barn owls (Tyto alba) after a glucose challenge. Journal of Nutrition, 129: 1896-1904. [Link]

NRC. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry (8th Ed.). National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., USA. [Link]

Rezaeipour V, Fononi H & Irani M. 2012. Effects of dietary L-threonine and saccharomyces cerevisiae on performance, intestinal morphology and immune response of broiler chickens. South African Journal of Animal Science, 42: 266-273. [Link]

Rezaeipour V and Gazani S. 2014. Effects of feed form and feed particle size with dietary L-threonine supplementation on performance, carcass characteristics and blood biochemical parameters of broiler chickens. Journal of Animal Science and Technology, 56: 20. [Link]

Rosa AP, Pesti GM, Edwards HM & Bakalli RI. 2001. Threonine requirements of different broiler genotypes. Poultry Science, 80: 1710-1717. [Link]

Sahin T, Kaya I, Unal Y & Elmali DA. 2008. Dietary supplementation of probiotic and prebiotic combination (Combiotics) on performance, carcass quality and blood parameters in growing quails. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 7: 1370-1373. [Link]

SAS. 2001. Statistical Analysis Systems user's guide: Version 8.02 Edition. SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, N.C., USA. [Link]

Smirnov A, Perez R, Amit-Romach E, Sklan D & Uni Z. 2005. Mucin dynamics and microbial populations in chicken small intestine are changed by dietary probiotic and antibiotic growth promoter supplementation. Journal of Nutrition, 135: 187-192. [Link]

Strompfova V, Marcinakova M, Gancarcikova S, Jonecova Z, Scirankova L, Guba P, Koscova J, Boldizarova K & Laukova A. 2005. New probiotic strain Lactobacillus fermentum AD1 and its effect in Japanese quail. Vet Med Czech, 50: 415-420. [Link]

Talebi A, Amirzadeh B, Mokhtari B & Gahri H. 2008. Effects of a multi strain probiotic (PrimaLac) on performance and antibody responses to Newcastle disease virus and infectious bursal disease virus vaccination in broiler chickens. Avian Pathology, 37: 509-512. [Link]

Ton APS, Furlan AC, Martins EN, Batista E, Pasquetti TJ, Scherer C, Iwahashi AS & Quadros TCO. 2013. Nutritional requirements of digestible threonine for growing meat-type quails. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnica, 42: 504-510. [Link]