1Department of Animal and Poultry Physiology, Faculty of Animal Science, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran.
2Department of Biology, College of Basical Sciences, Golestan University, Gorgan, Iran.
3Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.
In order to investigate the effects of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) alcoholic extract on liver injury caused by the oxidant carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), an experiment was performed as a completely randomized design in a factorial arrangement (2 × 2) with 4 replications of 10 broilers each. Factors included two levels of peppermint leaf alcoholic extract (0 and 2 mL/Kg body weight) and CCl4 (0 and 1 mL/Kg body weight). Results showed significant (P) interactions for body weight gain (BWG), feed intake (FI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) on d 42 of the experiment. The alcoholic extract of peppermint leaf did not improve growth performance, whereas CCl4 worsened BWG and FCR (P). The interaction between peppermint extract and CCl4 indicated an ameliorative effect of peppermint extract on BWG and FCR (P). The interaction effects between peppermint extract and CCl4 significantly differed for blood serum concentrations of total protein, albumin, albumin:globulin ratio, glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDLC, LDLC, LDLC:HDLC ratio, and VLDLC as well as the amount of blood liver enzymes (P). Peppermint extract significantly increased blood serum concentrations of total protein, albumin, triglyceride and HDLC, whilst CCl4 decreased those concentrations (P). Blood serum concentrations of total cholesterol, LDLC, LDLC:HDLC ratio, VLDLC and glucose were decreased by peppermint extract, whereas those concentrations were increased by CCl4 (P). A significantly higher level of liver enzymes was found in blood serum of birds treated by CCl4 than those by peppermint extract (P). A moderate effect on blood serum liver enzymes was observed by the interaction between 2 mL of peppermint extract and 1 mL of CCl4 (P). Generally, this study indicated that in vivo administration of peppermint alcoholic extract ameliorated the adverse effects of CCl4 on growth performance and liver function, therefore it might be useful for the prevention of oxidative stress-induced hepatotoxicity in broilers.
Abdo ZM, Radvan NL & Selim NA. 2007. The effect of artichoke leaves meal on the utilization of dietary energy for broiler chickens. International Journal of Poultry Science, 6: 973-982.
Adzet T, Camarasa J & Laguna JC. 1987. Hepatoprotective activity of polyphenolic compounds from Cynara scolymus against CCl4 toxicity in isolated rat hepatocytes. Journal of Natural Products, 50: 612-617.
Ahsan R, Islam KM, Musaddik A & Haque E. 2009. Hepatoprotective activity of methanol extract of some medicinal plants against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats. Global Journal of Pharmacology, 3: 116-122.
Akbari M & Torki M. 2014. Effects of dietary chromium picolinate and peppermint essential oil on growth performance and blood biochemical parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress conditions. International Journal of Biometeorology, 58: 1383-1391.
Al-Kassi GA & Witwit NM. 2010. A comparative study on diet supplementation with a mixture of herbal plants and dandelion as a source of probiotics on the performance of broilers. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 9: 67-71.
Altan O, Pabuçcuoğlu A, Altan A, Konyalioğlu S & Bayraktar H. 2003. Effect of heat stress on oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, and some stress parameters in broilers. British Poultry Science, 44: 545–550.
Boll M, Weber LW, Becker E & Stampfl A. 2001. Pathogenesis of carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatocyte injury bioactivation of CCl4 by cytochrome P450 and effects on lipid homeostasis. Zeitschrift für Naturforschung, 56: 111-121.
Bouchra C, Achouri M, Idrissi Hassani LM & Hmamouchi M. 2003. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of essential oils of seven Moroccan Labiatae against Botrytis cinerea. Journal of Ethnopharmacolgy, 89: 165-169.
Castro JA & Diaz Gomez MI. 1972. Studies on the irreversible binding of C-CCl4 to microsomal lipids in rats under varying experimental conditions. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 23: 541-552.
Clawson GA. 1989. Mechanisms of carbon tetrachloride hepatotoxicity. Journal of Pathology and Immunopathology Research, 8: 104-112.
D’Acosta N, Castro JA, Diaz Gomez MI, Ferreyra EC, de Castro CR & de Fenos OM. 1973. Role of cytochrome P-450 in carbon tetrachloride activation and CCl4-induced necrosis. Effect of inhibitors of heme synthesis. I. 3-Amino-1,2,4 triazole. Research Communications in Chemical Pathology and Pharmacology, 6: 175-183.
Dein FJ. 1986. Hematology. In: Harrison GJ & Harrison LR. (Eds). Clinical Avian Medicine and Surgery. Saunders Company. Philadelfia. Pages, 174-191.
Diaz Gomez MI, de Castro CR, D’Acosta N, de Fenos OM, de Ferreyre EC & Castro JA. 1975. Species differences in carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity: The role of CCl4 activation and of lipid peroxidation. Toxicology Applied Pharmacology, 34: 102-114.
Diaz Gomez MI, Godoy HM & Castro JA. 1983. No response of pigeon liver to dimethylnitrosamine acute effects. Cancer Letters, 18: 157-162.
Drotman RB & Lawhorn GT. 1978. Serum enzymes as indicators of chemical induced liver damage. Drug and Chemical Toxicology, 1: 163-171.
El Iraqi KG, Abdelgawad EM, Ibrahim HM & El Sawe AE. 2013. Effect of Gingko Biloba, dry peppermint and vitamin C as anti-stress on broiler welfare during summer heat stress. Global Veterinaria, 10: 770-778.
Escop (European Scientific Cooperative on Phytotherapy). 2003. ESCOP Monographs. 2nd Ed. The Scientific Foundation for Medicinal Products. Thieme. UK. 554 Pages.
Fallah R, Kiani A & Azarfar A. 2013. Effect of artichoke leaves meal and mentha extract (Mentha piperita) on immune cells and blood biochemical parameters of broilers. Global Veterinaria, 10: 99-102.
Foster S. 1996. Peppermint: Mentha piperita. American Botanical Council-Botanical Series, 306: 3-8.
Gad AS, Khadrawy YA, El-Nekeety AA, Mohamed SR,Hassan NS & Abdel-Wahhab MA. 2011. Antioxidant activity and hepatoprotective effects of whey protein and Spirulina in rats. Nutrition, 27: 582-589.
Geraert PA, Guillaumin S & Leclercq B. 1993. Are genetically lean broilers more resistant to hot climate? British Poultry Science, 34: 643–653.
Guo FC, Savelkoul HFJ, Kwakkel RP, Williams BA & Verstegen, MWA. 2000. Immunoactive, medicinal properties of mushroom and herb polysaccharides and their potential use in chicken diets. World's Poultry Science Journal, 59: 427-440.
Harborne AJ. 1998. Phytochemical Methods a Guide to Modern Techniques of Plant Analysis. Springer. London. 302 Pages.
Helander IM, Alakomi H, Latva-Kala K, Mattila-Sandholm T, Pol I, Smid EJ, Gorris LGM & Von Wright A. 1998. Characterization of the action of selected essential oil components on gram-negative bacteria. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 46: 3590–3595.
Hetrog MGL & Hollmann PCH. 1998. Potential health effects of the dietary flavonol quercetin: review. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 50: 63-71.
Huang YF, Ma HL, Wu DF, Zhou JI, Zhou KS & Qi ZY. 1992. Effect of Chinese medicinal herbs additives on the growth of broilers. Journal of Fujian Agriculture College, 21: 93-96.
Jain S, Jain DK & Balekar N. 2012. In-Vivo antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of Mentha pulegium leaf against CCl4 induced toxicity in rat. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, 2: S737-S740.
Khan TH & Sultana S. 2009. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective potential of Aegle marmelos Correa against CCl4-induced oxidative stress and early tumor events. Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry, 24: 320-327.
Knekt P, Kumpulainen J, Järvinen R, Rissanen H, Heliövaara M, Reunanen A, Hakulinen T & Aromaa A. 2002. Flavonoid intake and risk of chronic diseases. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 76: 560–568.
Lieber CS. 2000. Alcohol and the liver: metabolism of alcohol and its role in hepatic and extrahepatic diseases. The Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine, 67: 84-94.
Lovkova MY, Buzuk GN, Sokolova S M & Kliment’eva NI. 2001. Chemical features of medicinal plants (Review). Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology, 37: 229–237.
Madrid J, Herandez F, Garcia V, Orengo J, Megias MD & Sevilla V. 2003. Effects of plant extracts on ileal apparent digestibility and carcass yield in broilers at level of farm. 14th European Symposium of Poultry Nutrition. Lillehammer, Norway. Pages, 187-188.
Mahmoud KZ & Edens FW. 2003. Influence of selenium sources on age-related and mild heat stress-related changes of blood and liver glutathione redox cycle in broiler chickens (Gallus domesticus). Comparative, Biochemistry and Physiology Part B: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 136: 921–934.
Manibusan MK, Odin M & Eastmond DA. 2007. Postulated carbon tetrachloride mode of action (A review). Journal of Environmental Sciences and Health, Part C: Environmental Carcinogenesis and Ecotoxicology Reviews, 25: 185-209.
Mansoub NH. 2011. The evaluation of different levels of Menthe pulagum on performance, and blood parameters of broilers. Journal of American Science, 7: 388-391.
Mashaly, MM, Hendricks, GL, Kalama, MA, Gehad, AE, Abbas, AO & Patterson PH. 2004. Effect of heat stress on production parameters and immune responses of commercial laying hens. Poultry Science, 83: 889–894.
Mehmetçik G, Özdemirler G, Koçak-Toker N, Çevikbaş U & Uysal M. 2008. Effect of pretreatment with artichoke extract on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury and oxidative stress. Experimental and Taxicologic Pathology, 60: 475-480.
Meyer SA & Kulkarni AP. 2001. Hepatotoxicity. In: Hodgson E & Smart RC. (Eds). Introduction to Biochemical Toxicology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. New York. Pages, 487-490.
Moawad KM. 2007. Possible prophylactic effects of vitamin E or lycopene treatment on renal toxicity induced by CCl4 administration in albino rats. World Journal of Zoology, 2: 19-28.
Mujumddar AM, Upadhye AS & Pradhan AM. 1998. Effect of Azadirachtha indica leaf extract on ccl4 induced hepatic damage in albino rats. Indian Juornal of Pharmaceutical Science, 60: 363-367.
Murray MT. 1995. The Healing Power of Herbs: The Enlightened Persons Guide to the Wonders of Medicinal Plants. Prima Publishing. Roseville. 410 Pages.
Nateghi R, Samadi F, Ganji F & Zerehdaran S. 2013. Hepatoprotective effects of Cynera Scolymus L. extract on CCl4 induced liver injury in broiler chickens. International Journal of AgriScience, 3: 678-688.
NRC (National Research Council). 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry. 9th Rev. Ed. Nationa Academy Press. Washington, DC. 176 Pages.
Owen JS. 1990. Extrahepatic cell membrane lipid abnormalities and cellular dysfunction in liver disease. Drugs, 40: 73-83.
Panovska TK, Kulevanova S, Gjorgoski I, Bogdanova M & Petrushevska G. 2007. Hepatoprotective effect of the ethyl acetate extract of Teucrium polium L. against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic injury in rats. Acta Pharmaceutica, 57: 241-248.
Parmar MY, Shah PA, Thakkar VT, Al-Rejaie SS & Gandhi TR. 2012. Hepatoprotective effect of amomum subulatum roxb seeds on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in rats. Journal of Pharamcy, 2: 38-43.
Patil K & Mall A. 2012. Hepatoprotective activity of Mentha arvensis Linn. Leaves againts CCl4 induced Liver damage in rats. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease, 2: S223-S226.
Radwan NL, Abdo ZM & Hassan RA. 2007. Effect of feeding artichoke leaves meal on productive and reproductive performance of Mandarah hens. International Journal of Poultry Science, 6: 826-834.
Rastogi RP & Mehrotra BN. 1993. Compendium of Indian Medicinal Plant. Vol 3 1980-1984). Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow and Publications and Information Directorate. New Dehli, India. 831 Pages.
Rao GMM, Rao CV, Pushpangadan P & Shirwaikar A. 2006. Hepatoprotective effects of rubiadin, a major constituent of Rubia cordifolia Linn. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 103: 484–490.
SAS (Statistical Analysis System). 2003. SAS/STAT® 9. User’s Guide. SAS Institute Inc. Cary, North Carolina.
Samudram P, Rajeshwari H, Vasuki R, Geetha A & Sathiya P. 2008. Hepatoprotective activity of Bi-herbal ethanolic extract on CCl4 induced hepatic damage in rats. African Journal of Biochemistry Research, 2: 61-65.
Sathesh Kumar S, Ravi Kumar B & Krishna Mohan G. 2007. Hepatoprotective effect of Trichosanthes cucumerina Var cucumerina L. on carbon tetrachloride induced liver damage in rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 123: 347–350.
Schaffer S, Echert GP, Muller WE, Llorach R, Rivera D, Grande S, Galli C & Visioli F. 2004. Hypochlorous acid scavenging properties of local Mediterranean plant foods. Lipids, 39: 1239-1247.
Sharma A, Sharma MK & Kumar M. 2006. Protective effect of Mentha piperita against arsenic-induced toxicity in liver of swiss albino mice. Basic and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, 100: 249–257.
Shimizu H, Uetsuka K, Nakayama H & Doi K. 2001. Carbon tetrachloride-induced liver acute liver injury in Mini and Wister rats. Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology, 53: 11-18.
Singh D & Gupta RS. 2011. Hepatoprotective activity of methanol extract of Tecomella undulate against alcohol and paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Life Science Medicine Research, 26:1-6.
Slater TF. 1966. Necrogenic action of carbon tetrachloride in the rat: a speculative mechanism based on activation. Nature Medicine, 209: 36-40.
Södergren E, Cederberg J, Vessby B & Basu S. 2001. Vitamin E reduces lipid peroxidation in experimental hepatotoxicity in rats. European Journal of Nutrition, 40:10-16.
Sonkusale P, Bhandarker AG, Kurkare NV, Ravikanth K, Maini S & Sood D. 2011. Hepatoprotective activity of superliv liquid and repchol in CCl4 induced FLKS syndrome in broilers. International Journal of Poultry Science, 10: 49-55.
Taylor B. 1984. The mechanism of the inhibitory action of menthol on gut smooth muscle. British Journal of Surgery, 71: 902-908.
Uehleke H, Hellmer K & Tabarelli S. 1973. Binding of carbon tetrachloride to microsomal proteins in vitro and formation of CHCl3 by reduced liver microsomes. Xenobiotics, 3: 1-11.
Villarruel MC, Gomez MD & Castro JA. 1975. The nature of the in vivo irreversible binding of carbon tetrachloride to microsomal lipids. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 33: 106-114.
Vokovic-Gacic B & Simic D. 1993. Identification of natural antimutagens with modulating effects on DNA repair. Basic Life Sciences, 61: 269–277.
Wang SP & Huang KJ. 2004. Determination of flavonoids by high performance liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis. Journal of Chromatography A, 1032: 273–279.
Wolf PL. 1999. Biochemical diagnosis of liver disease. Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry, 14: 59-90.
Yildiz G, Sacakli P, Gungor T & Uysal H. 2008. The effect of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) on blood parameter, liver enzymes and intestinal pH in laying hens. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 7: 1297-1300.
Yu J, Bao ED, Yan J Y & Lei L. 2008. Expression and localization of HSPs in the heart and blood vessel of heat-stressed broilers. Cell Stress and Chaperones, 13: 327–335.
Please cite this article as: Khodadust MR, Samadi F, Ganji F, Jafari Ahangari Y & Asadi GH. 2015. Effects of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) alcoholic extract on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in broiler chickens under heat stress condition. Poult. Sci. J. 3 (1): 1-16.